keywords: Castor, physico-chemical, Poga oleosa, shea butter, rubber seed
Physico-chemical properties of four Nigerian seeds namely: Poga oleosa, Ricinus communis L. (Castor seed oil), Butyrospernum parkii (shea butter), and Hevea brasilensis (rubber) seeds were extracted for its oils with six solvents: chloroform, ethanol, hexane, carbon tetrachloride, pet-ether and water were investigated using standard techniques. The oils were characterized for the following parameters: saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, iodine value, acid value, peroxide value, ester value, viscosity, refractive index, specific gravity, pH and moisture content. The results obtained for the tested parameters suggest that the oils investigated in this study have potential industrial applications such as in the manufacture of paints, soaps and hair products.
Abayeh OJ, Abdulrazak AK & Olagun R 1999. Quality characteristics of Canarium schweiturthin. Engl. Oil Plant Goods for Human Nutr., 54(1): 43-48. Abitogun AS, Alademeyin OJ & Oloye DA 2009. Extraction and characterization of castor seed oil. The Internet J. Nutri. & Wellness, 72(8): 100-105. Aigbodion AI & Pillai CST 2000. Preparation analysis and applications of rubber seed oil and its derivatives in surface coating. Prog. Org. Coat., 3: 187-192. Akintayo ET 1997. Chemical composition, physicochemical properties of flutted pumpkin seed and seedoils.Rivista Italiana Sotanze Grasse, 74: 13-16. Akubugwo IE, Chinyere GC & Ugbogu AE 2008. Comparative studies on oils from some common plant seeds in Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutr., 7(4): 570-573. Amara AA & Salem SR 2009. Degradation of castor oil and lipase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. America-Eurasian J. Agric and Environ. Sci., 5(4): 556-563. Andrew C, Buba AA, Itodo AU & Etim EE 2012. Thermoxidative degradation of commonly used vegetable oils: A comparative study. J. Emerging Trends in Engr. & Appl. Sci. (JETEAS), 3(6): 924-928. AOAC 1997. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Ed. Washington, DC, Aremu MO, Olaofe O & Akintayo ET2006. Chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea) flours. J. Appl. Sci., 6: 1900-1903. Asintoke E 1987. Saponification studies of shea butter oil. An unpublished B.Sc. Project. University of Port Harcourt, 1-40. Asuquo JE 2008. Studies on the adsorption of some selected metallic soaps onto hematite. Phd Dissertation, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2010. Extraction and characterization of shea butter oil. Wojast, 2(2):282-288. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2012a. Extraction and characterization of rubber seed oil. Int. J. Modern Chem., 1(3): 109-115. Asuquo JE, Etim EE, Ukpong IU & Etuk SE 2012b. Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of Poga oleosa oil. Int. J. Modern Anal. & Separ. Sci., 1(1):23-30. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2012c. Effect of temperature on the adsorption of metallic soaps of shea butter oil onto hematite.Int. J. Modern Chem., 1(2): 83-92. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2012d. pH effect on the adsorption of metallic soaps of shea butter oil onto hematite in aqueous media. Int. J. Modern Chem., 2(2): 74-83. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI, Etim EE & Umoh UE 2012e. Effect of temperature on the adsorption of metallic soaps of rubber seed oil onto hematite. Int. J. Modern Chem., 1(3):135-143. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2012f. Effect of pHon the adsorption of the metallic soaps of rubber seed oil onto hematite in aqueous medium. Int. J. Modern Anal. & Separ. Sci., 1(1): 31-39. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2012g. Studies on the effects of pHand temperature on the adsorption of metallic soaps of castor seed oil. Int. J. Chem. Sci., 5(2): 248-252. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2012h. Studies on the effect of pH on the adsorption of the metallic soaps of shear butter, castor and rubber seed oils. Int. J. Modern Engr. Sci., 1(3): 105-117. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2012i. Comparative study of the effect of temperature on the adsorption of metallic soaps of shea butter, castor and rubber seed oils onto hematite. Int. J. Modern Chem., 3 (1):39-50. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2013a. Extraction and Characterization of Castor seed oil from the South-Eastern Nigeria. Int. J. Res. & Advan. Physical Sci., 3(1): 79-82. Asuquo JE, Anusiem ACI & Etim EE 2013b. Extraction and Characterization of Castor seed oil from the South-Eastern Nigeria. Int. J. Res. & Advan. Physical Sci., 3(1): 79-82. Burkill HM 1997. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 504-505. Codex Alimentarus Commission 1993. Graisses et huiles vegetables. Division II version abregle, FAO, WHO Codex, Stan 20-1981-23-1981. Dhellot JR, Matoula EMG, Nsikon JM, Safon-Ngoma DG, Linda M, Desobry S & Parmentier M 2006. Extraction, chemical composition and Nutritional characterization of vegetable oils: Case of Amaranthus hybridis (Var. 1 and 2) of Congo Brazzaville. Afr. J. Biotech., 5(11): 1095-1101. Eka OU 1997. Properties and potentials of rubber seed oil. West African Journal of Biological and Applied Chemistry 20:45-53 FAO 2000. Cooperate: Document Respiratory Minor oil crops. Available on http:/www.fao.org/docrep/CX5043E06.htm Goh E 1994. Formulation of lauric oil containing food products and their performance in proceedings of world conference on lauric oils. Sources, Processing and Applications/Applewhite. AOCS, Champaign, AOCS: pp. 38-103. Hosen BM, Chin HF & Hor YZ 1981. Fruit and seed development in Hevea in Maylasia. Institute of Rubber Res. Institute, Maylasia, 32: 101-110. Ikwuagu OE, Ononogbo IC & Njoku OU 2000. Production of biodesel using rubber seed oil. Ind. Crop. Prod., 12: 57-62. Kovo AG & Bawa AA 2007. Extraction and Characterization of oil from Accia nilotica seeds by different solvents. J. Eng. App. J., 2: 572-575. Lewkowitsch JJ 1969. Chemical technology and analysis of oils, fats and waxes. The Macmillan Co. New York, pp. 134-136. Nwankwo BA, Aigbekaen EO & Sagau GA 1985. Estimate of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed production in Nigeria. In:Industrial Utilization of rubber, seed, latex and wood. Proceeding of national conference. Ephraim E. Enabor (ed). Rubber Reasearch Institute of Nigeria, pp. 78-87. Ramadhas AS, Jayaraj S, Muraleedharam C 2005. Characterization and the effect of using rubber seed oil as fuel in the compression engines. Renew. Ener. 30: 795-803. Rauken MD & Kill RC 1993. Fats and fatty foods: in food industries Manual, 23rd Ed. Longman, London, pp. 288-327. Roger AB, Rebbecca RA, Georges A & Mathia IO 2010. Chemical characterizationof oil from germinated nuts of several coconut cultivars (Cocos nuciferhl). Eur. J. Scient. Res, 39(4): 514-522, Sepidar S, Zurina ZA, Robiah Y & Azhari M 2009. Extraction of oil from Jatropha seed-Optimization and Kinetics. Am. J. Appl. Sci., 6(7): 1390-1395. Sonau H, Picard N, Lovett PN, Dembele M, Koko A, Diarrisso JB & Bouvet JM 2006. Phenotypic variation of agromorphological traits of the shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, C.F, Geartinin mail. Genetic Resources and Crop Evol., (53): 145-161. Tella AB 1979. Preliminary studies on nasal decongestant activities from seed of the shea butter tree (Butyrospernum parkii). Pharmacology, 7(5): 495-497.