keywords: Heavy metals, metal mobility, metal speciation, soil contamination
The sequential extraction provides information on mobility and stability of various metal species which can be used to evaluate the movement of such metals in soils. The effect of dye effluent on the fractions, spatial distribution, and mobility of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) was investigated in five vicinity of dye pits in Zaria city, northern Nigeria. Total concentrations of Pb, Cr and Cd recorded were at maximum values of 181.57, 228.57 and 40.55 mg kg-1, respectively. However, the concentration of Cu was within acceptable limit of 200 mg kg-1 while concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr were above the threshold levels. The sequential extraction procedure was used to fractionate the soil into six operationally defined species. Speciation of the heavy metals indicated that 50-70% of the metals were associated with the resistant soil fraction; this represents heavy metals held in the crystal lattices of minerals with strong bindings and consequently are not easily released into the environment. However, the effect of chemicals in the dye effluent, under the influence of pH, could release these metals into the soil-exchange site thereby increasing the concentrations of labile Cd, Cr and Pb in soils which may consequently aggravate the potential hazard for the redistribution and translocation of these metals into the food chain and underground water.
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