keywords: Nigerian plants, Spondias mombin leaves, Brine Shrimps cytotoxicity
In this work, six Nigerian plants traditionally used to manage inflammation and cancer have been screened for cytotoxicity against brine shrimps with the aim of assessing their potential as anticancer agents. The plants included Spondias mombin leaves, Dichrostachys cinerea root, Crassocephalum crepidoides leaves, Crassocephalumrubens leaves, Myriantusarboreus stem bark and Maytenus senegalensis root. Extraction of Spondias mombin (SM) leaves, Dichrostachys cinerea (DC) root, Crassocephalum crepidoides (CC) leaves, Crassocephalum rubens (CR) leaves, Myriantus arboreus (MA) stem bark and Maytenus senegalensis (MS) root with methanol yielded 11.87%, 7.11%, 6.51%, 6.4%,1.87% and 24% of crude extracts, respectively. The crude methanolic extracts showed lethal activities in Brine Shrimps Test(BST) in the order, SM>MS>DC>CC>MA>CR based on their LD50 (µg/mL) values of 29.17 ± 3.18, 32.05 ± 3.50, 37.90 ± 6.26, 42.39 ± 5.53, 46.32 ± 5.38 and 56.44 ± 5.01 and their LD90 (µg/mL) values of 115.12 ± 7.83, 120.04 ± 11.05, 142.53 ± 21.43, 153.87 ± 9.64, 164.98 ± 10.21 and 173.60 ± 7.75, respectively. Fractionation of SMcrude extract gave SM1,> SM2,>SM4> SM3 in increasing order of toxicity. Further purification of fraction SM1 using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) gave fractions SM1-1, SM1-2, andSM1-3 with LD50 values at 24h as 4.63, 6.14 and 5.92 and LD90 values of 41.38, 47.72 and 45.68µg/mL, respectively. Column chromatography of fraction SM1-1 gave fractions CC1-CC7 which showed slightly more cytotoxic fractions, particularly fractions CC1, CC3, CC4 and CC6 with LD50 (µg/mL) values of 3.72±1.01, 4.26±0.33, 3.20±0.24 and 5.31±0.29, respectively. Thus, the selected plants have been confirmed to possess cytotoxicity. Among the extracts the leaves of Spondias mombin have exhibited the greatest activity. Also, fractionation has been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of the extract in this work and has justified the activity of this plant in ethnomedicine for the management of inflammation and cancer.
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