(A Peer Review Journal)
e–ISSN: 2408–5162; p–ISSN: 2048–5170


Pages: 543-549
P. A. C. Okoye, R. A. Wuana and C. V. Ogbodo

keywords: Beverages, blue-baby syndrome, carcinogenic, juice, Makurdi


The nitrite, nitrate and nitrosamine concentration in ten (10) wine brands, five (5) malt drinks and five (5) fruit juices commonly consumed in Makurdi, Benue state were analyzed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, with the aim of determining them and comparing the concentration values with World Health Organisation (WHO) and NAFDAC standards. The results showed that wine brands consumed in Makurdi, Benue state contained between 0.80±0.01 to 2.52±0.13 mg/L nitrites, 7.41±0.14 to 13.05±0.07 mg/L nitrates and nitrosamines were not detected in any of the samples. Malt drinks contained concentrations of nitrites within close range (0.71±0.08 to 0.80±0.01 mg/L) and nitrates (9.65±0.14 to 10.35±0.14 mg/L) suggesting similarity of raw materials and methods of processing. Nitrosamines were not detected in any of the malt samples. Fruit juices contained the lowest levels of nitrites (0.57±0.07 to 0.80±0.01 mg/L), moderately high levels of nitrates (8.72±0.08 to 15.47±0.21 mg/L) particularly in juices containing apples or coconut. Nitrosamines were not detected in the fruit juice samples studied. All concentrations obtained were below the acceptable concentration levels stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) hence, the beverages under study were verified safe for consumption. The statistical tests performed showed significant difference in the nitrite and nitrate concentrations of wine brands and fruit juices but no statistical difference in the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in the malt drinks. This was attributed to wider variations in methods of processing, choice/quantity of preservatives and nature of raw materials in the manufacture of wine and fruit juices, which is probably absent in malt drink making. The parameters under study require regular checks and monitoring hence, it was recommended by the researcher, that this and similar research work be periodically carried out by NAFDAC and also, as research work by other students of Analytical chemistry or Food Science and Technology.


Aduloju OS, Thomas FC, Okediran BS & Ajibola ES 2010. Presence of nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamines in the eggs of intensively raised layers in Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association’s 47th Annual National Conference Book of Proceedings, pp. 63-66. Chung SY, Kim JS & Kim M 2003. Survey of Nitrite and Nitrate Content of vegetables grown in Korea. Food Additives & Contaminants, 20(7): 621-628. Chung JC, Chou SS & Hwang DF 2004. Changes in nitrate and nitrite content of four vegetables during storage at refrigerated and ambient temperatures. Food Additives& Contaminants, 21(4): 317-322. Ezeagu IE 2005. Occurrence of nitrate and nitrite in water and some alcoholic beverages in Nigeria. Food/Nahrung., 39(5-6): 530-534. Fox JB Jr 1979. Kinetics and mechanisms of the Griess reaction. J.Anal. Chem., 51(9): 1493-1502. Gangolli SD, van den Brandt PA, Feron VJ, Janzowsky C, Koeman JH, Speijers GJ, Spiegelhalder B, Walker R & Wisnok JS 1994. Nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 292(1): 1-38. Grosse Y, Baan R, Straif K, Secretan B, Ghissassi FE & Cogliano V 2006. Carcinogenicity of nitrate, nitrite and cyanobacterial peptide toxins. Lancet Oncology, 7(8): 628-9. Maynard DN, Barker AV Minotti PL & Peck NH 1976. Nitrate accumulationin vegetables. Advances in Agronomy, 28: 71-118. Stefan MI & Bolton JR 2002. UV direct photolysis of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA): Kinetic and Product Study. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 85(5): 1416–1426. McPherson M, Stephen SN & Sen P 2007. Nitrosamines in alcoholicbeverages. Wiley Online Library, J. Food Safety, 10: 111 Menard C, Heraud F, Volatier JL & LeBlanc C 2008. Assessment ofdietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A, 25(8): 971-988. Ogunmodede OT, Adewole E, Adeniran OA, Adewale OB & Adewumi F 2012. Contents of nitrosamine and its precursors in some roasted Nigerian food grains, tubers and animals and their potential ingestion in the diet. Archives Appl. Sci. Res., 4(1): 285-291. Ogunmodede OT 2014. Assessment of nitrate, nitrite and nitrosamines of some roasted food materials in Nigeria. J. Advant. Med & Life Sci., 1(1): 67-93. Ozmen H, Polat F & Cukurovali A 2006. Spectrophotometric determinationof nitrite in water samples with 4-(1-methyl-1-mesitylcyclobutane-3-yl)-2-aminothiazole. Analytical Letter, 39: 823. Sen NP, Baddoo PA & Seaman SW 1993. Nitrosamine in cured pork productspackaged in elastic rubber nettings: An update. Food Chem., 47: 387 -390. Shin JH, Chung MJ & Sung NJ 2005. Occurrence of N-nitrosodimethyl amine in South Korean and Imported Beverages. Pubmed. J. Food Additives & Contaminants, 22(11): 1083-6. Telling GM & Dunnett PC 1981. The determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) at trace levels in shampoos and skin creams by a simple, rapid colorimetric method. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 3: 241-248.