(A Peer Review Journal)
e–ISSN: 2408–5162; p–ISSN: 2048–5170


Pages: 628-632
D. N. Osujieke, P. E. Imadojemu andJ. N. Igbojionu

keywords: Characterization, floodplain, physiographic, survey, toposequence, variability


The study was carried out on a floodplain formed by Okitankwu River, Uratta South-eastern Nigeria with the aim of characterizing and studying the variability of soils of the area for optimal management and utilization. A transect survey technique was used to align the physiographic positions at an equidistance of 100 m. Three pedons were dug on each of the physiographic positions which consist of the upland, terrace and backswamp. Samples were collected and subjected to routine analysis. Data generated was analyzed statistically using coefficient of variation. The pH (H2O) indicated that soils were moderately acidic with ranges of 5.37¬¬- 5.48 at upland, 5.38 - 5.50 at terrace, and 5.39 – 5.93 at backswamp. However, the soil horizon of each physiographic position show that soils were generally low to moderate in cation exchange capacity (2.80 – 6.80) cmol/kg, low to moderate in percent base saturation (24.19 – 65.22) % and low in organic matter content (0.15 – 3.41 %). The coefficient of variation (CV) showed that sand contents and pH values had low variation in all the physiographic positions. High variation in organic carbon and total nitrogen were recorded in all the physiographic positions, while total exchangeable acidity, effective cation exchange capacity and base saturation indicated moderate variation in all physiographic positions. These results provide a baseline data of Uratta floodplain soils. The information obtained from this study indicates that the soils need adequate management for a sustainable utilization.


Ambeager A 2006. Soil fertility and plant nutrition in the tropics and subtropics. IFAV IPI, p. 96. Anikwe MAN, Okonkwo CI & Anikwe NI 1999. Effect of changing land use on selected soil properties in Abakiliki agronecological zone south eastern Nigeria. Environ Edu. Info., (1): 79-84. Brady NC & Weil RR 1999. The nature and properties of soils. 12th edition. Prentice-Hall Inc. Bremner JM 1996. Nitrogen total. Sparks, D.L., (ad) Methods of soils analysis, parts chemical mth 2nd ed, SSSA book series No5, SSSA, Madison WI, pp. 1085-1125. Chude VO, Malgwi WB, Amapu IY & Ano AO 2011. Manual on Soil Fertility Assessment. Federal Fertilizer Department. FAO and National Programme on Food security, Abuja, Nigeria. 62 pp. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Cunningham PW & Cunningham MA 2004. Principles of Environmental Science MC-Graw Hill, New York, USA. Effiong GS, Isirimah NO & Eshette U 2006. Influence of liming on the productivity and availability of Okra Nig. J. Agric; Food and Environ. Eshette EJ 1985. Soil characteristics and farming systems in Northern Cross River State of Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Eshette EJ 1990. The Wetlands soils of Nigeria. Properties, Classification and Traditional Landuse Practices. In: Wetlands and Ecotones studies on land-water Interactions, Gopal, B., A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska and R.G. Wetzel (Eds.). National Institute of Ecology New Delhi, pp. 227-244. Eshette ET 1993. The Wetlands soils of Nigeria: Properties, Classification and Traditional Landuse practices. Wetland and Ecotones. Eshette ET 1994. The Wetlands of Nigeria: Distribution, Characterization and Traditional landuse Practice. Proceeding of the 21st Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria, University of Ugo, Akwaibom State, pp. 1-19. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation). 2006. Guideline for soil profile descriptions. Rome, p. 66. Gee GW & Or D 2002. Particle size analysis. In: Dane, J.H., Topp, G.C. (eds). Methods of soil analysis part 4, Physical methods.Soil Science Society Am. Book series; No 5 ASA and SSSA Madison, 1: 255-295. Hendershot WH, Lalande H & Dequette 1993. Soil reaction and exchangeable acidity. In: Carter, M.R (ed) soil sampling and Methods of Analysis Canadian Soc. of Sci, Lawis Pub, London pp. 141-145. Ibia TO & Udo EJ 1993. Phosphorous forms and fixation capacity in representative soils of Akwaibom State of Nigeria. Geoderma, 58: 95-106. Igwe CA 2005. Soil physical properties under different management systems and organic matter effects on soil moisture along soil catena in Southeastern Nigeria. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 5: 57-66. Landon JR 1991. Booker Tropical Manuel: A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. New York. Longman Inc. McLean EO 1982. Aluminum. In: Pages AL, Miller RH & Keeney DR (Eds), Methods of soil analysis part 2 American society of Agro economy, Madison WA, pp. 978-998. Middleton HE 1930. Properties of soils which influence soil erosion US Dept. Agric. Tech Bull., p. 176. Ministry of Agriculture 2010. Imo State Government Retrieved 20- 10- 2015. Nelson DW & Sommers LE 1982. Total Carbon, Organic matter. In: Pages AL, Miller RH & Kenney DR (Eds). Methods of soil Analysis, part 2 Amer Soc. Agron. Madison, Wis, pp. 539-579. Nelson SD & Terry RE 1996. The effect of soil properties and irrigation method on denitrification. Soil Sci., 161(4), 242-249. Obi ME 1984. Physical Properties of Wetland Soils. 12th Annual Conference of soil science Society of Nigeria, Port Harcourt. Ofomata GEK 1975. Landform Regions. In: Ofomata GEK (Ed). Nigeria in maps: Eastern States. Ethiope Publishing House, Benin, pp. 33-34. Ofomata GEK 1987. Soil Erosion in Nigeria. The views of a Geomorphologist. Inaugural Lecture series No of the University of Nigeria, pp. 3-33. Ogban PI & Babalola O 2003. Soil Characteristics and constraints to crop production in inland valley bottoms in southwestern Nigeria. Agric. Water Management, 61: 13-28. Ojanuga AG, Okusami A & Lekwa G 1996. Wetland soils of Nigeria Status of Knowledge No. 2 Soil Science Soc. of Nigeria. Okunsami TA & Oyediran GO 1985. Slope–soil relationship on aberrant toposequence in Ife area of southwestern Nigeria. Variabilities in soil properties. Ife J. Agric., 7: 1-15. Omoti U 2001. Presidential address. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria, Calabar. Onweremadu EU 2007. Pedology of Near Gully Sites and its implication on the erodibility of soils in central southeastern Nigeria. Res. J. Environ Sci., 1(2): 71-76. Patrick WU 1990. From Wasteland of Wetland. York Distinguished Lecture Series, University of Florida, FL, pp. 3-14. Smith P, Powlson DS, Glendining MJ & Smith JU 1998. Preliminary estimates of the potential for Carbon mitigation in European Soils through no-till farming. Global Change Biol., 4: 679-685. Soil Survey Staff 1993. Soil Survey Manual Handbook no 18 (Washington, D.C. USDA) Ster, J. and J. Estes. (1990) GIS: An Introduction (Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J. Prent Halls). Summer ME & Miller WP 1996. Cation Exchange Capacity. In: DL Sparks (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical Properties., (3rded) ASA, SSSA, CSSA, Madison, W.I., pp. 1201-1229. Thomas GW 1982. Exchangeable Bases. In: Methods of analysis Part 2. Page AL, Miller, RH, & Keeney DR (eds)., pp. 159-165. American Society of Agronomy Madison Wisconsin. Udo EJ 1980. Profile distribution of iron sesquioxides of selected Nigeria soils. J. Agric. Sci., 95: 191-198. Ukpong IE 2000. Ecological classification of Nigeria mangroves using soil nutrient gradient analysis. Wetlands Ecol. Manage., 8: 263-272. Unamba-Opara I 2005. Soil Reaction (pH) and Soil organic matter monographs No 3, respectively. Dept. of soil Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka. Wilding LP, Bouma J & Boss DW 1994. Impact of spatial variability on interpretative modeling. In: Quantitative modeling of soil forming processes. Bryant RB & Amold RW SSSA Special Publication, No. 39: 6175.