keywords: Estimated daily intake, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Niger Delta, Toxic/hazard quotient
This study specifically ascertained the levels of Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) in samples of smoke-dried Ethmalosa fimbriata (Mean length=26.52 ± 3.35 cm; mean weight=74.05 ± 4.56 g) from selected markets in Warri, Delta state, Nigeria, by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric technique, in order to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The grand mean for heavy metals in fish ranged from 0.195 mg/kg (Cd) to 329 mg/kg (Fe) while the heavy metal profile in fish was Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for heavy metals in mg/person/day ranged from 0.008 (Cd) to 3.52 (Fe) while the EDI profile for the metals followed the rank order Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. The total toxicity of mixtures (TTM) index for heavy metals was 27.16 while the toxicity/hazard quotient (TQ) for heavy metals ranged from 0.63 (Cu) to 10.97(Fe). The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) for heavy metals was 3614 mg/person/day while the margin of exposure (MOE) for heavy metals ranged from 0.09 (Fe) to 1.60 (Cu). The mean concentrations of the investigated metals exceeded the maximum limits established by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Commission Regulation (EC), indicating that such fish must be consumed with caution to avoid heavy metal poisoning and its related myriad of health problems.
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