keywords: Bioactivity, essential oil, Hyptissuaveolens seeds, pathogens, toxicity
The chemical composition of the volatile oil obtained by hydro-distillation using all glass Clevenger apparatus from Hyptissuaveolens L seeds grown in Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria was analysed by GC/MS. The acute toxicity of the oil on Callosobrochusmaculatus was carried out using antifeedant and filter paper methods. The oil was also assessed for antimicrobial (antibacterial and anti-fungus) activity against ten pathogens which are three Gram positive; Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus andStrepcoccus pneumonia, three Gram negative; Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphiandKlebsiella pneumonia and four fungal; Aspergillusniger, Aspergillusflavus, Candida tropicalis and Fusariumsolaniusing agar diffusion method. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified representing 93.35% of the total oil composition with 3-Dodecenal (16.41%), hexadecanoic acid (12.11%), 2- decenal (11.56%), linalool (10.78%), geraniol (7.66%), tetradecanoic acid (7.27%), germacrene D (6.48%), β- elemene (5.01%) and geranyl acetate (4.88%) as major components. The result of the insecticidal activity showed that activity is concentration dependent. For antifeedant method, it was 100% mortality at all the concentration used but the percentage mortality for filter paper method ranged between 16 and 40% for 6 h and 30 to 60% for 24 h. The oil inhibited the growth of all the bacterial except E. coli and S. aureus which showed resistance to the oil and the growth of the fungi were all inhibited at different zones of inhibition. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) ranged between 0.125 and 0.5 ml/ml with K. pneumonia (0.125 mL/mL) and S. paratyphis (0.25 mL/mL) and 0.5 mL/mL for other pathogens. It is concluded in this study that the plant material will serve as natural insecticide and shelf-life preservative for cowpea.
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