(A Peer Review Journal)
e–ISSN: 2408–5162; p–ISSN: 2048–5170


Pages: 782-787
J.E Oguche, A.O.Ameh. Tanimu and S.A. Egu3

keywords: Acid hydrolysis, Algae biomass, Lignocellulosics, RSM, concentration, models


This paper reports a study on the production of furfural from algae biomass, optimizing the process parameters using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) was employed to determine the effect of process parameters: temperature (65 – 140oC), time (30 – 90 min), and concentration of 1MH2SO4 (35 mL/g-70 mL/g) on the yield of furfural. The regression analysis showed good fit of the experimental data to the second-order polynomial (Quadratic model) with coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9807 and model Fvalue of 56.54. The model was found to be significant as its Predicted R2 of 0.8771 was in close agreement with the Adjusted R2 of 0.9634. Its probability value was greater than F value. A good fit of the model was further validated as F-value of 4.17 was found to be greater than the P-value of 0.0714. Furfural yield of 69.29% was predicted by the model at optimum condition: reaction temperature of 140oC, H2SO4quantity of 35.02 mL and reaction time of 65.3 min.Validation experiments conducted at the optimum conditions gave an experimental value of 67.10% which was in close agreement with the predicted value of 69.26%.


Alabi AO, Tampier M &Bibeau E 2009. Microalgae technologies and processes for biofuels/bioenergy production in British Columbia—Current technology, suitability and barriers. The British Columbia Innovation Council. Ambalkar VU & Talib MI 2012. Synthesis of furfural from lignocellulosic biomass as agricultural residues : A Review, 30–36. Ameh AO, Ojo AA &Gaiya J 2016. Preliminary investigation into the synthesis of furfural from sugarcane bagasse. FUW Trends in Sci. &Techn. J., 1(2): 582 - 586. www.ftstjournal.com Ayse A, Badal CS, Gregory JK& Michael AC 2013. High temperature dilutes phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn Stover for furfural and ethanol production.Journal Industrial Crops and Product: homepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/indcrop Hannon M, Gimpel J, Tran M, Rasala B & Mayfield S 2010.Biofuels from algae. Challenges and Potential of Biofuels, 1: 763–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bfs.10.44. Jeon W, Ban C, Eun J, Chul H &Heui D 2016. A chemical production of furfural from macroalgae-derived alginic acid over. J. Molecular Catalysis,423: 264–269. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2016.07.020 Jones CS & Mayfield SP 2012. Algae biofuels: Versatility for the future of bioenergy.Current Opinion Biotechn., 23: 346–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2011.10.013. Lopez F, García MT, Feria MJ, GarcíaJC, De diego CM, Zamudio AM &DíazMJ 2012. Optimization of Furfural Production by Acid Hydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus in Two Stages. Machado G, Leon S, Santos FL, Dullius, Mollmann ME &Eichler P 2016. Literature review on furfural production from lignocellulosic biomass. Natural Resources, 7: 115-129. Http://dx.Doi.Org/10.4236/nr.2016.73012 Maity SK 2015. Opportunities, recent trends and challenges of integrated biorefinery: Part I. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 43: 1427-1445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.092 Shafeeq A, Muhammad A, Sarfaraz S, Akram Z, Usman S & Umar F 2015.Effect of acid concentration on the extraction of furfural from corncob.Int. J. Chem. Engr. &Applicat., 6(5). Shaukat A, Fiyyaz AC, Najia I &Kiran A 2002. Effect of chemical treatment on the production of furfural and active carbon from rice husks. Int. J. Agric. & Bio., 4(1): 23–25. http://www.ijab.org Sweygers N, Dewil R &Appels L 2016.Production of levulinic acid and furfural by microwave-assisted hydrolysis from model compounds: Effect of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time.Waste Biomass Valor .DOI 10.1007/s12649-016-9797-5. Tong X, Ma Y & Li Y 2010. Biomass into chemicals: Conversion of sugars to furan derivatives by catalytic Processes. Journal of Applied Catalysis: A review: General, 385: 1–13. Wang W, Ren J, Li H, Deng A & Sun R 2015. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl4 catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems. BioresourceTechn., 183: 188-194. Wenjuan X, Suping Z, Junjie L &Qinjie C 2016. Furfural production from corncobs using thiourea as additive. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, (in press). Yan KW, Lafleur T & Jarvis C 2014. Production, properties and catalytic hydrogenation of furfural to fuel additives and value-added chemicals. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 38: 663-676. Yemis O &Mazza G 2011. Acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose, xylan and straw into furfural by microwave-assisted reaction. Bioresource Technol. 102: 7371–7378. Zeitsch KJ 2000. The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural.