keywords: Deficiency, internal drainage, productivity, salinity, sodicity
Water used for irrigation contains several substances that may affect the productive capacity of soils and yields of crops. The study analysed soil properties on irrigated lands along FarinRuwa River. A total of 8 soil samples were taken at both dry and raining seasons on irrigated fields near Mangar town in Wamba Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. Standard laboratory methods were used to determine the concentrations of the variables covered by this study. Electrical conductivity and pH were determine by Jenway portable meter, sodium, calcium and magnesium by Ammonium acetate leaching method, potassium by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, nitrates, lead and boron by Cadmium extraction method, available phosphates using Olsen sodium bicarbonate method, Cation Exchange Capacity by Ammonium acetate method, nitrogen % by Macro Kjedhal wet oxidation method and particle size analysis by Hydrometer method. The results from this study showed that sodium 0.92 and 0.95 me/kg was low in the soil when compared to ions of calcium and magnesium. Trace elements such as iron 1.8 and 1.7 mg/kg, lead 0.11 and 0.15 mg/kg and boron 0.42 mg/kg for dry and rainy season, respectively in the soils were within the levels considered for irrigation. Nitrates 0.06 and 0.05 ppm, phosphates 3.0 and 3.19 ppm and nitrogen % 0.26 and 0.14 for dry and rainy season were low and deficient in the soil. The electrical conductivity of 202 and 490 uS/cm showed salinity built up in the soil for both dry and raining seasons. The pH of 4.47 and 4.92 were acidic below the level at which solubility could be reached. The study therefore recommends that there is the need to increase the application of organic and chemical fertilizers to raise nutrients deficient in the soil and raise the frequency in application of irrigation water to leach the excess salinity observed for the soils.
AbubakarSZ, Lidon B &MudiareOJ 2006.Field testing of agency farmer joint irrigation management concept and its impact on system operation and maintenance in Hadeja Valley irrigation project, Nigeria. J. Agric. Engr. &Techn.,14: 67-78. AdamuGK 2013. Quality of irrigation water and soil characteristics of River Watari project.Int. J. Envtal. Sci., 3(1): 33-41. Afsin A, Farid M &Giti F 2007.Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area S.W. Iran.J. Envtal. Monitoring, Assessment, 10(2): 367-373. Ayers RJ &WestcotsDW 1994.Water Quality and Drainage Paper Rev. 1.Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. Ayoade JO 2003.Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources.Ibadan; AgboAreo Publishers pp. 77-108. Baulder TA, Waskom AM, Sutherland PI & David JG 2012. Irrigation water Quality Criteria: USA, Colorado University, p. 88. Brady RH, Kurtz LT 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils.Soil Science, 59: 39–45. Essiet EU 1988. Monitoring Soil Water Quality in Agricultural Development Projects in Perspective on Land Administration and Development. Dept. of Geography, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, pp. 126-153. Fawaz A, Mohammad SO &Gasim MB 2013.Water quality of the River Selangor, Malaysia.J. Chem. Bangi, Selsngor, Malaysia, 43-50. Food Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 1997.FAO Production Year Book Vol. 51, FAO, Rome Kundu S 2012. Assessment of surface water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes; A case study of Ghaggar River system surface waters. Bull. Envt.,Pharmacol. & Life Sci., 1(3): 1-6. Luo J, Lindsey S &Xue J 2004. Irrigation of Meat Processing water on land: J. Agric, Ecosys. &Envt.,103: 123-148. Majumdar DK 2004. Irrigation Water Management Principles and Practice. New Delhi, India: Prentice Hall, pp. 88-102. Mass I 1990. Crop Salt Tolerance in Agricultural Assessment and Management Manual.KKTanji (ed) ASCE, New York, pp. 176-184. Miller RW& Gardiner DT 2007.Soils in our Environment.9th edition. Prentice Hall-Inc.; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp. 23-41. Nwa EU 2003.History of Irrigation Drainage and Flood Control in Nigeria from Pre-Coloniel Time to 1999. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd, pp. 89-91. Ogundiran MB &Osibanjo O 2008. Heavy metals concentrations in soils and accumulation in plants growing in a Dasert Slag dumpsite in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(17): 3053-3060. OkereJU&Kakulu SE 2011. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in soils from mining and agricultural areas in Nasarawa State, Nigeria: J. Chem. Sci., 4(2): 391-399. Rahaman SA 2007. Crop Production in Nasarawa State: In Akwaet al. (eds): Geographical Perspective on Nasarawa State. Onaivi Publishing Company, Keffi, pp. 89-102. Samaila KI &Binbol 2007. Hydrology and water Resources of Nasarawa State: In: Akwaet al. (eds): Geographical Perspective on Nasarawa State. Onaivi Publishing Company, Keffi, pp. 54-60. Samaila KI &GimbaMTJ 2007. The Influence of Wastewater on Soil Chemical Properties on Irrigated Fields in Kaduna South Township: Int. J. Natural & Appl. Sci. Univ. Calabar (IJNAS), 2(2): 87-94. Samaila KI, Marcus ND &Momale SB 2011. Efficient management of resources.wastewater application in dry season farming in Kaduna urban area, Nigeria. Agric. Journal: Medwell J. Pak., 188-193. Samaila KI 2015. Assessment of Surface Water and Soil Quality for Irrigation in Northern Nasarawa State, Nigeria.An Unpublished PhD Thesis University of Abuja, 2015. Tivy J 1990. Agricultural Ecology: Singapore, Longman, p. 68. Wright RT 2007.Environmental Science. India Prentice Hall, p. 89. Zwieg RD, Morton JD & Stewart MM 1999. Source water quality for aquaculture: A Guide for Assessment. The World Bank, Washington DC, pp. 96 Zwieg RD, Morton JD & Stewart MM 1999. Source Water Quality for Aquaculture: A guide for Assessment: The World Bank; Washington DC, p. 96.