This study was carried out to determine the contribution of eight commonly consumed energy drinks to energy
intake of youths in Yola and the associated health risk factors. Eight brands of non-alcoholic energy drinks were
analyzed for some physicochemical properties (pH, turbidity, conductivity and total dissolved Solids), essential
and heavy metals contents. The results of physicochemical properties ranged between 2.89±0.00 to 3.14±0.00,
3.12±1.44 to 1024±2.82, 156±0.70 to 834.75±8.83 and 0.14±110 for pH, conductivity, total dissolve solid, and
turbidity, respectively. pH of the energy drinks were within the acidic range but conductivity, total dissolved solid
and turbidity were within the recommended limit set by world health organization for energy drinks. Heavy metals
determine in energy drinks were copper, iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The result reveals that the concentration
of zinc, iron, copper, manganese and lead were within the recommended permissible limit set by world health
organization, food and agricultural organization, standard organization of Nigeria etc. The essential elements
determined in energy drinks were calcium and potassium. The result reveal that the calcium concentration was low
compared to the standard set by food and agricultural organization while the concentration of potassium in sample
last shoot was high, about 937.00 mg/L which are higher than the recommended limit.
Anna Szymczycha-Madeja, MajaWelna&Pawel Pohl 2013. Determination of elements in energy drinks by ICPOES with sample preparation: Analytical Chemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Wroclaw University of Trchnology, WybrzezeWyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1994. Toxicological profile for Zinc and Cobalt. Us Department of Health and Human Service, Public Health Service, 205- 88-0608.
Agriculture and Agric-Food Canada 2008. The energy drink segment in North America. Available from: . Accessed Jan 7, 2009.
Ameyaw F, Ayivor JE, Deborah SK, DzideOpata NS &SarfoKantanka 2011. Determination of some trace element in soft drink from Ghana. Elixir Appl. Chem., 41: 5969-5971.
Akinmolusun O, Bezabih Y, Kunnissaaari S &Mugambi 2012. Detrimental effects of energy drink consumption on adolescents: TurunAmmattikorKeakoulu Turku University of Applied Science, 8(2): 95-137.
Ashurst PR 2005. Chemistry and Technology of Soft drinks and Fruit Juices. 2nd Edn., Vol. III (4) Blackwell Scientific Publication, London, pp: 433.
AttiehZK, MukhopadhyayCK, Seshadri V, Tripoulas NA & Paul L 1999. Fox ceruloplasminferroxidase activity stimulates cellular iron uptake by a trivalent cation-specific transport mechanism. J. Biol. Chem., 274: 1119.
Attila S&Cakir B 2011. Energy drinks consumption in college students and associated factors. Nutrition, 27(3): 316-322.
Avannija Reddy DMD, Donf S, Momeni MS, Belinda MBA & John Rubi 2016. The pH of beverages in the United States, 20% adobe reader.
Babu M, Kavita MD, Church J, Richard MD &Lewander William MD 2008. Energy drinks: The new eye-opener for adolescents. Clinical Paediatric Emergency Medicine, 9(1): 35-40.
Bassiouny MA & Yang J 2005. Influence of drinking patterns of carbonated beverages on dental erosion. General Dentistry, 53: 207-210.
Casimir Emmanuel Gimba, Stephen EyijeAbechi&NurudeenSulaiman Abbas 2014. Studies on physico-chemical Properties, Trace minerals and heavy metal contents of common Energy drinks. Int. J. Advance Res., ISSN No. 2320-5407.
Chelben J, Piccon-Sapir A, Lanco J, Shoenfeld N &KotlermStrous RD 2008. Department of psychiatry beer yaakovmental health center. Israel General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(2): 187-189.
Clauson KA, Shield KM, Mcqueen CE &Persad N 2008. College of pharmacy-west palm beach, Nov. Southeastern University. Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, 33410 .
Ensminger ME &Ensminger AH 1995. The Concise Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition; CRC Press; Boca Roton, pp. 712-722.FAO/WHO2011. Expert committee on food additive. Geneva, World health organization. World health organization technical report series, No.960.
Fifield, F. W. and P. J. Haines, 1997. Environmental Analytical chemistry, Blackie Academic Professional: London, 323-349.
Finley JN 2004. Does environmental exposure to manganese pose a health risk to healthy adults? Nutr. Rev., 62: 148-153.
Foran M, Strickland F, Perkins K & Smith JA 2011. Excessive intraoperative bleeding with chronic energy drink consumption. J. Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 1-3.
Hossiene 2011. Determination of Zinc (II) ions in waste water sample by novel zinc sensor based on newly synthesized Schiff’s base. Material Science and Engineering C, 31: 428-433.
Hrckman MA, Sherry E & Gonzalez De Mejia 2010. Energy drinks: An assessment of their market size, consumer demographic, ingredient profile, functionality and regulation in the United States. Comprehensive Rev. Food Sci. & Food Safety, 9: 303-317.
Institute of Medicine 2001. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, p. 964.
IyaduraiSJ& Chung SS 2007. New-onset seizures in adults: possible association with consumption of popular energy drinks. Epilepsy Behav., 10(3):504–508.
Izah SC, Chakrabarty N &Srivastav AL 2016. A review on heavy metal concentration in potable water sources in Nigeria: human health effects and mitigating measures. Exp. Health, 8: 285–304.
LalGG 2007. Getting specific with functional beverages. Food Technology, 61(12): 25–31.
Lesmiewicz A, Grzesiak M, ZyermickiBorkowska-Burnecka 2016. Mineral composition and nutritive value of Isotonic and energy drink. Biol. Trace Element Res., 170(2): 485-495.
MaduabuchiJMU, NzegwuCN, AdıgbaEO, Aloke RU, EzomikeCN, Okocha CE, Obi E &OrisakweOE 2006. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern. Science Total of Environment, 366: 621–626.
Malinauskas BM, Aeby VG, Overton RF, Carpenter-Aeby T & Barber-Heidal K 2007. A survey of energy drinks consumption patterns among college students. Nutritional Journal, 6: 1-7.
Maurice SM 2010. The soft drinks companion a technical handbook for the beverage industry, CRC Press, p 45.
Mohammed SG, Al-Hashimi AG & Al-Hussainy KS 2012. Determination of caffeine and trace minerals contents in soft and energy drinks available in Basrah markets. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11(9): 747-750.
Obuzor GU &Ajaezi NE 2010. Nutritional content of popular malt drinks produced in Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci., 4(9): 585 – 590.
O’Dea JA 2003. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: Usage and perceived benefits. Health Education Research, 18(1): 98-107.
Oladejo T, Adepoju V &Oluwakemi O 2014. Consumption pattern of energy drinks by university of Ibadan students and associated health risks factors. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2209-2216.
OgunlanaOO, Akinsaya&AgunlanaOE 2015. Heavy metal analysis of selected soft drinks in Nigeria. Journal of Global Biosciences, 4(2): 1335-1338.
OrisakweOE 2008. Iron, manganese and nickel exposure from beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern? J. Heath Sci., 54: 335–338.
Pearson D 1976. The chemical analysis of foods. Churchill Living stone, London United State Department of Agriculture (USDA).Foreign Agricultural Services.Global Agricultural information Network. GAIN Report Number: IS2011,1101.
Rath M 2012. Energy drinks: What is all the hype? The dangers of energy drink consumption. J. Am. Acad. Nurse Practitioners, 24(2): 70-76.
Red Bull 2002. GMBH- Company Profile Information, Business Description History, Background information on red bull. Soft drink manufacturing NAIC A-5330.
Reissig CJ, Strain EC & Griffiths RR 2008. Caffeinated energy drinks – A growing problem. Drug and Alcohol Dependency, 99: 1-10.
Ryan-Harshman M &Aldoori W 2005. Health benefits of selected minerals. Can. Fam. Physician, 51(5): 673–675.
Satarug S & Moore MR 2004. Adversed health effects of chronic exposure to low- level cadmium ion foodstuffs and cigarette smoke. Environmental Health Perspect., 112(10): 1099 – 2004.
Sylvester ChibuezeIzah, Iniobong Reuben Inyang, TariwariCNAngaye&Ifeoyang Peace Okowa 2016. A review of heavy metals concentration and potential health implications of beverages consumed in Nigeria. MDPI, pp. 340-400.
TesfayeGizaw 2013. Determination of selected heavy metal in bottle mango drinks produce in Ethiopia, pp. 884-975.
Van den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, LongstrethWTJr, van Belle G, Daling JR & McKnight B 2008. Aspartame ingestion and headaches: A randomized crossover trial. Neurology, 44:1787– 1793.
WHO 2012. Basic documents (Edition 47). Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO), (http://apps.who.int/gb/bd/). World Health Organization 1993. Micronutrient deficiency. Battling iron deficiency anemia [online] Nutritional program.bn.