keywords: ‘Agege bread’, bakers, potassium bromate, staple food
A comparative assessment of potassium bromate and trace/toxic metal levels in bread loaves obtained from selected corporate and local bakeries in two communities of Lagos, Nigeria, was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Potassium bromate was present in bread loaves obtained from both corporate and local bakeries, but the bread loaves obtained from local bakeries had significantly higher (p < 0.05) bromate levels. The lowest bromate levels in bread loaves obtained from corporate bakeries was 1.18 ± 0.01 mg/kg, while the highest was 2.26 ± 0.01 mg/kg. The lowest and highest bromate levels in bread loaves obtained from local bakeries were 3.85 ± 0.01 and 11.13 ± 0.00 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of metals in the sampled bread loaves were generally below regulatory limits. Bread loaves obtained from corporate bakery 5 had the highest Zn content of 3.26 ± 0.06 mg/kg bread, while the lowest Zn level of 1.18 ± 0.03 mg/kg was found in loaves obtained from local bakery 2. Bread loaves obtained from local bakeries 1, 2 and 3 had Pb contents of 1.26 ± 0.01, 1.26 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. Bread loaves obtained from corporate bakery 1 had a mean Co content of 0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg while loaves obtained from local bakeries 3 and 4 had Co contents of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.00 mg/kg, respectively. There is need for regulatory agencies in Nigeria to take adequate steps that will ensure safety compliance among bakers.
Adefris A 2011. Heavy metal toxicity.Medscape Drugs, Diseases and Procedures.Article 814960, 7 pp. Ahmed A &Fadel W 2012.The influence of baking fuel types on the residues of some heavy metals in Jordanian bread. Jordan Journal of Chemistry, 7(1): 81-85. American Bakers Association and American Institute of Baking International, ABA/AIBI, 2008.Commercial Baking Industry Guide for Safe Use of Bromate. ABA and AIBI International, p. 16. Campbell KCM 2006.Bromate-induced toxicity.Toxicology, 221: 205-211. ChipmanJK, Parson JL&BeddowesEJ 2006. The multiple influences of glutathione on bromate genotoxicity: Implications of dose-response relationship. Toxicology, 221: 187-189. Duruibe JO, OgwuegbuMOC&EgwurugwuJN 2007.Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects.Int. J. Physical Sci., 2(5): 112-118. Emeje MO, Ofoefule SI, Nnaji AC, Ofoefule AU & Brown SA 2010. Assessment of bread safety in Nigeria: qualitative determination of potassium bromate and lead. Afr. J. Food Sci., 4(6): 394-397. Food and Agricultural Organization & World Health Organization 1999. Summary and Conclusions of the Expert Committee on Food Additives, 53rd Meeting, Rome. Kujore A &Serret J 2010.The analysis of potassium bromate in bakery products.Food Engr. & Ingredients, 10: 22-24. Kurokawa Y, Maekawa A, Takahashi M & Hayashi Y 1990. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate: a new renal carcinogen. Envtal. Health Perspective, 87: 309-335. Magomya AM, YebpellaGG, UdibaUU, Amos HS &Latayo MS 2013. Potassium bromate and heavy metal content of selected bread samples produced in Zaria, Nigeria. Int. J. Sci. &Techn., 2(2): 232-237. Nakamura M, Murakami T, Himata K, Hosoya S & Yamada Y 2006. Effects of reducing agents and baking conditions on potassium bromate in bread. Cereal Foods World, 51: 69-75. Ojo RJ, Kajang DD, Adebayo-Gege GI &Akintayo CO 2013.Analysis of potassium bromate and hydrocyanic acid contents of commonly consumed bread loaves and wheat flour samples in Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.J. Envtal. Sci., Toxico.& Food Techn., 6(1): 42-46. Oyekunle JA, Adekunle AS &Ogunfowokan AO 2014. Bromate and trace metal levels in bread loaves from outlets within Ile-Ife metropolis, Southwest, Nigeria. Toxicology Reports, 1(2014): 224-230. Ray S & Ray MK 2009. Bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity with special reference to cadmium.Al Ameen J. Medical Sci., 2(2): 57-63. Umelo MC, Nsofor AE, Akajiaku LO, Odimegwu EN, Uzoukwu AE, Agunwah IM, EluchieCN, Alagbaoso SO &Njoku NE (2014). Effect of different dough improvers on the proximate composition, minerals, vitamins and sensory properties of wheat bread.Int. J. Scientific Res. & Innovative Techn., 1(3): 112-126.