keywords: Activated carbon, kinetic model, corncob, crude oil, textural properties
Activated corncob carbon was prepared and tested for removal of crude oil, diesel, kerosine and petrol from land and aqueous medium by comparing its oil uptake, recovery of sorbed oil and retain ability of sorbed oil with a standard; conventional synthetic sorbent used in oil spill removal. The experiment was conducted under the same experimental condition by batch adsorption method. The result of the study shows that the standard sorbed 11.50 g/g of crude oil, 10.38 g/g of diesel, 8.20 g/g of kerosine and 6.30 g/g of petrol while activated corn cob carbon sorbed 4.15 g/g of crude oil, 3.27 g/g of diesel, and 2.66 g/g of kerosine and 2.40 g/g of petrol. The standard performed better in terms of oil uptake and recovery, while activated corncob carbon retained more of the sorbed. Activated corncob carbon is suitable where oil recovery is not required. Textural properties and functional group studies shows that the standard has larger surface area (1633 m2 g) than activated corncob carbon (784 m2 g), it is mesoporous and predominantly hydrocarbon, while, activated corncob carbon is microporous and has surface acidic groups. The difference in porosity, surface chemistry and functional group present in the sorbents contributed to higher uptake by the standard. The volume of water sorbed together with each sorbate onto activated corncob carbon and the standard was 3 ml (0.70 g) and 6 ml (1.2 g), respectively. These volumes are minimal for each of the sorbent, indicating that activated corncob carbon can be employed in oil spill mop in aqueous environment. Langmuir isotherm model can describe the adsorption process of crude oil and it’s lower onto activated corncob carbon and standard. Kinetic models employed suggest that the sorption process of the sorbates onto activated corncob carbon and the standard occurs via a surface reaction and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. The result of the study indicates that activated corncob carbon is a viable oil spill sorbent.
Akinyemi OP &TaiwoEA 2004.Production of activated carbon from agricultural waste.Nig. Soc. of Chem. Eng. Proceedings, 34: 59-62. Al – Qodah Z &Shawabkah R 2009. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge. Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 26(1): 127 – 136. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1999.Standard Test Method for Volatile Content of Activated Carbon.ASTM, D 5832-98, Philadephia PA. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1999.Standard Test Method for Apparent Density of Activated Carbon.ASTM D 2854 – 96, Philadephia PA. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1999.Standard Test Method for Moisture in Activated Carbon.ASTM D, 2867-99, Philadephia PA. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1999.Standard Test Method for Total Ash Content of Activated Carbon. ASTM, D 2866-94, Philadephia PA. AnnunciadoTR, SydenstrickerTHD&Amico SC 2005. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibres as oil sorbent materials for oil spills. Mar.Pollut. Bull., 50(11): 1340–1346. Bayat A, Aghamiri SF, Moheb A &Vakili-Nezhaad GR 2005. Oil spill cleanup from seawater by sorbent materials.J. Chem. Eng., Technol., 28(12): 1525–1528. Bhatia SC 2006. Environmental Pollution and Control in Chemical Process Industries. Khanna, New Delhi. Bodirlau R &Teaca CA 2009.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis of lignocellulosic fillers treated with organic anhydride. Rom. J. Phys., 54(1): 93–104. Boehm HP 2002. Surface oxides on carbon and their analysis: A critical assessment. Carbon, 40(2): 145-149. Boehm HP 1994. Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons.Carbon, 32(5): 759-769. Budai A, Wangs L, Gronil M, Strand LT, AntarMJ, Abiven S, Dieguez-Alonso A, Anca-Couce A &Rasse DP 2014. Surface properties and chemical composition of corncob and miscanthusbiochars: Effects of production temperature and method. J. Agric Food Chem., 62(17): 3791-3799. Dawodu FA &Akpomie KG 2014.Simultaneous adsorption of Ni(II) and Mn(II) ions from aqueous solution unto a Nigerian kaolinite clay. J. Mater. Res. Technol., 3(2): 129–141. FingasM 2013. The Basics of Oil Spill Cleanup, 3rd edn.CRC Press, New York,GamalOE, Mohamed MY &Armany AA 2014. Assessment of activated carbon prepared from corncobs by chemical activation with phosphoric acid. Wat.Resour.Ind., 7: 66 -75. Hall KR, Eagleton LC, Aerivos A &Vermeulen T 1966. Pore and solid-diffussion kinetics in fixed- bed adsorption under constant-pattern conditions. Ind. Eng.Chem.Fund., 5: 212-223. Ho YS& Mackay G 1998. The kinetics of sorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution by sphagnum moss peat.Can. J. Chem. Eng., 76(4): 822–827. Hoskin MG, Underwood AJ&Archambault P 2006. Properties of naturally degrading sorbents for potential use in the clean-up of oil spill in sensitive and remote coastal habitat. Centre for research on Ecological impacts of coastal cities. Marine ecology laboratories (ALL).University of Sydney.NSW 2006.Final report for AMSA; 2001. KetchaJM, Dina DJD, Ngono HM &Ndi NJ 2012. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons obtained from maize cobs by zinc chloride activation. Amer. Chem. Sci. J., 2(4): 136 – 160. Lim Y, Chul cha M & Chang YJ 2015. Compressible and monolithic microporous polymer sponges prepared via one-pot synthesis. Sci Rep, 5: 15957 Nwabunne JT &IgbokwePK 2012.Application of response surface methodology for preparation of activated carbon from palmyra palm nut.New York Sci. J., 5(9): 1-7 Nwadiogbu JO, Ajiwe VIE &Okoye PAC 2016. Removal of crude oil from aqueous medium by sorption on hydrophobic corncobs: Equilibrium and kinetic studies. J. Taibah Uni. for Sci., 10(1): 56-63. Nwadiogbu JO, Okoye PAC, Ajiwe VIE &NnajiJNJ 2014. Hydrophobic treatment of corn cob by acetylation: kinetic and thermodynamic studies.J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2(3): 1699–1704. Obiora-Okafor A, Omotioma M, MenkitiMC &Onukwuli OD 2014. Elimination of micro organic particles from wastewater using sawdust-based activated carbon:Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Int. J. Engr. &Techn., 14(3): 95 – 102. OkonkwoEM&Eboatu AN 1999.Environmental Pollution and Degradation.Onis Excel Publishing. Zaria. Olaniyi AB 2015. Maize: Panacea for hunger in Nigeria. Afr. J. Plant Sci., 9(3): 155-174. Ranum P, Pena-Rosas JP & Garcia-Casal MN 2014. Global maize production, utilization and consumption.Ann N Y Acad Sci., 105-112. Ribeiro T, Smith R & Rubio J 2000.Sorption of oils by the nonliving biomass of a salvinia sp. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(24): 5201 – 5205. Sheikha SA 2010. Kinetic and equilibrium adsorption of methylene blue and remazol dyes onto steam – activated carbons developed from date pits. J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 14(1): 47 – 53. Singh V, Kendall RJ, Hake K &Ramkumar S 2013. Crude oil sorption by raw cotton.Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52(18): 6277 – 6281. Taffarel SR & Rubio J 2009.On the removal of Mn(II) ions by adsorption onto natural and activated Chilean zeolites. Miner. Eng., 22(4): 336–343. Teas C, Kalligeros S, Zanikos F, Stournas S, Lois E &Anastopolous G 2001.Investigation of the effectiveness of absorbent materials in oil spill cleanup.Desalination, 140(3): 259–264. Thomas PW 2010. Sorbents, Properties, Materials and Application, Nova Science, New York. Viswanathan PI &Varadarajan TK 2009, National Centre for Catalysis Research, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Methods of activation and specific applications of carbon materials. http://nccr.iitm.ac.in/e%20book-Carbon%20Materials%20final.pdf. (accessed 05. 05.16). Volesky BV 2004.Sorption and Biosorption. BV Sorbex, Montreal. Weber WJ& Morris JC 1963.Kinetics of adsorption of carbon from solution.J. Sanit. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civil Eng., 89: 31–60. Yahya MA, Al-Qodah Z &ZanariahNgahCW 2015. Agricultural bio-waste materials as potential sustainable precursors used for activated carbon production: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 46: 218 – 235.