keywords: Heavy metals, groundwater, water quality, Sharada, North-western, Kano
The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination in Sharada industrial area of Kano, Nigeria. Groundwater samples were collected, examined and analyzed for water quality parameters (physicochemical and heavy metals) and compared with permissible water quality standards (World Health Organisation (WHO); Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ); and National Agency for Food, Drug and Control (NAFDAC). A random sampling method was employed in collecting the samples from three (3) different locations of Sharada phase I, II and III. Heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and titration was employed to determine physicochemical parameters while pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature were measured in-situ. Results obtained from the analysis of the heavy metal in the sampled hand dug wells revealed mean concentration ranges of Cd(0.10-0.20 mg/l), Cr(0.0370-0.0925 mg/L), Pb(0.0650-0.1305 mg/L) and Zn(0.0280-0.0420 mg/L) while the sampled boreholes recorded mean concentration ranges of Cd(0.10mg/L), Cr(0.0925-0.1110 mg/L), Pb(0.0430-0.1085 mg/L) and Zn(0.0560-0.0830 mg/L). In comparison with standards requirement for water quality, it was found that some of the parameters were above the standard quality for water requirements. Analyses also revealed that, the mean concentration of heavy metals like (Cd Cr and Pb) were found to be above standard water quality requirement, while Zn level did not exceed the standard limits. In conclusion, improper discharge of untreated effluents in the environment could have led to the contamination levels by heavy metals and other parameters detected in this study. It is therefore recommended that industrial, domestic and agricultural effluents should be subjected to the required treatment standards and constant monitoring of disposal processes of both industrial and domestic effluents in the study area that would guarantee protection of groundwater resources in the locality should be implored.
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