keywords: Electrical resistivity tomography, gravimetric analyses, texture, rain-fed agriculture
This study presents the 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring of soil moisture distribution on a small maize plot. It was aimed to investigate how soil moisture distribution affects maize plants (Zea Mays) growth and development in rain-fed agriculture. Gravimetric and textural analyses were carried out on the soil samples from the plot. Results of both textural and gravimetric analyses revealed a gradual increase in clay content and soil moisture from east-west across the study area. It was observed that area with low clay content of about 4.8% and moisture content of about 17% has high resistivity value of about 1068 ohms metre (Ωm) where as higher clay content of about 12.7% and moisture content of 20% has low resistivity of about 33 Ωm. High soil resistivity in the eastern part of the field is composed of material texture with less clay content and higher infiltration while low soil resistivity in the western part has material texture with more clay content and lower infiltration. Maize planted on moderate infiltration and low resistivity soil retained moisture with luxuriant growth during shortage of rainfall where as higher infiltration and high resistivity soil was affected by wilting and stunted growth with poor yield.
Amato M, Bitella G, Rossi R, Gómez JA, Lovelli S & Gomes JJF 2009. Multi - electrode 3D resistivity imaging of alfalfa root zone. Eur. J. Agron., 31: 213–222. Archie GE 1942. The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics. Trans. American. Inst. Min. Metall. Pet. Eng., 146: 54–67. Beff L, Gunther T, Vandoorne B, Couvreur V & Javaux M 2013. Three-dimensional monitoring of soil water content in a maize field using electrical resistivity tomography. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17: 595-609. Brillante L, Mathieu O, Bois B, Leeuwen C & van Lévêque J 2015. The use of soil electrical resistivity to monitor plant and soil water relationships in vineyards. Open Access SOIL, 1: 273–286. Garré S, Coteur I, Wongleecharoen C, Kongkaew T, Diels J & Vanderborght J 2013. Non-invasive monitoring of soil water dynamics in mixed cropping systems. A case study in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. Vadose Zone J., 12: 1–12. Garré S, Günther T, Diels J & Vanderborght J 2012. Evaluating experimental design of ERT for soil moisture monitoring in contour hedgerow intercropping systems. Vadose Zone J., 11: 14pages, doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0186. Garré S, Javaux M, Vanderborght J, Pages L & Vereecken H 2011. Three dimensional electrical resistivity tomography to monitor root zone water dynamics. Vadose Zone J., 10: 412–424. doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0079. Gunn DA, Chambers JE, Uhlemann S, Wilkinson PB, Meldrum PI, Dijkstra TA, Haslam E, Kirkham M, Wragg J, Holyoake S, Hughes PN, Hen-Jones R & Glendinning S 2015. Moisture monitoring in clay embankments using electrical resistivity tomography. Construction and Building Materials, 92: 82-94. Kareay P, Brooks M & Hill I 2002. An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration. Third Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd. Makurira H 2010. Water Productivity in Rainfed Agriculture: Redrawing the rainbow of water to achieve food security in rainfed smallholder systems, CRC Press/Balkema, Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology. McDonald RC, Isbell RF, Speight JG, Walker J & Hopkins MS 1998. Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook, Australian Collaborative Land Evaluation program: Canberra. MEA 2017. Soil, Texture and Moisture, Measurement Engineering Australia, an online publication. Michot D, Thomas Z & Adam I 2015. Non-stationarity of electrical resistivity and soil moisture relationship in heterogeneous soil system: A case study. SOIL. 2: 955-994. Michot D, Benderitter Y, Dorigny A, Nicoullaud B, King D & Tabbagh A 2003. Spatial and temporal monitoring of soil water content with an irrigated corn crop cover using surface electrical resistivity tomography. Water Resour. Res., 39: 1138-1143. Reynolds JM 1997. An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics. Wiley, Chichester. Sharp RE & Davies WJ 1985. Root growth and water uptake by maize plants in drying soil. J. Exp. Bot., 36: 1441–1456. Sheets KR & Hendrickx JMH 1995. Non-invasive soil water content measurement using electromagnetic induction, Water Resources. Res., 31: 2401–2409. Waxman MH & Smits LJM 1968. Electrical conductivities in oil-bearing shaly sands. Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 8: 107–122.