keywords: Jatropha, seed oil, physicochemical, fatty acids, soap, cosmetics
This study was undertaken to investigate the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Jatropha curcas L seed oil and compared with those of selected seed oils used commercially in the production of soap and cosmetic. The seed samples were collected from a demonstration farm in Warra, Ngaski, Kebbi State. The oil was extracted using soxhlet extractor with n-hexane. The fatty acid composition was determined using GC-FID. The oil yield (47.24%) was adequate for commercial use. The acid value (5.24 mg/KOH/g) was higher than in the selected vegetable oils, but could be controlled through refining. The iodine value of 94.72 mg/g classified the oil into the nondrying type like sesame, jojoba, Adansonia Digitata, cotton and corn seed oils. The major fatty acids in the oil were linoliec acid (38.27%), oleic acid (35.60%), palmitic acid (10.72%), Stearic acid (6.92%), Palmitoleic acid (2.71%), Arachidic acid (1.49%), Linolenic acid (1.37%) and Myristic acid (0.26%). The percentage composition of the two most abundant unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and oleic acids) compared well with those reported for sesame, cotton and corn seed oils. The two most abundant saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic acids. The value for palmitic acid compared well with those reported for sesame, almond and corn seed oils, while for stearic acid, it compared well with those reported for sesame, Adansonia Digitata and cotton seed oils. Refining of J. curcas seed oil could make it a good raw material for soap and cosmetic production.
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