keywords: Vitellaria paradoxa, Plasmodium falciparum, SYBRGreen 1 assay, microscopy, sapotaceae
The antiplasmodial activity of Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae) leaves and stem bark 70% aqueous methanol crude extracts were evaluated and their phytochemical components elucidated. The study was carried out using the SYBRGreen 1 assay in an ex vivo culture of parasitized red blood cells along with a Giemsa stained microscopy study of same to ascertain the validity of the results. The leaves extract gave an IC50 of 39 µg/ml against the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum while the stem bark showed no antiplasmodial effect with an IC50 of 66 µg/ml. The photomicrographs of the treated cells show some parasite growth arrest in the case of treatment with the leaves extract but showed the contrary in terms of the stem bark extract. The presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Terpenoids and Flavonoids were detected using chemical tests in the leaves and stem bark extracts but with the Flavonoids not found in the stem bark extract. Hence, the leaves of Vitellaria paradoxa has proven to have some antimalarial active compounds which if isolated would be valuable in the development of new antimalarials.
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