keywords: Malaria, bi-herbal, nociceptive, anti-inflammation, Guiera senegalensis, Psidium guajava
Malaria being universal worries largely with appearance of several drug resistivity strains in Plasmodium falciparum, requiring of novel and efficient anti-malarial agents. Bi-herbal leaves extract of Guiera senegalensis and Psidium guajava play a vital role in treatment of malaria in traditional forms of medicine. This study investigates anti-malarial, nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of the extract. The treated animal groups received graded doses of the plant extracts daily for three consecutive days. In vivo anti-plasmodial property was evaluated using Rane’s curative protocol in P. berghei infected mice. Nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated on Swiss mice and rats via standard procedure. Acute toxicity evaluation was understudied with a modified lorke down techniques. The extract established its prophylactic and curative activity at (50 and 100 mg/kg). The result showed a significant increase in percentage inhibition of parasitemia clearance was attained (74 and 79%) (for 4 post-management days) which is significant than standard drug (chloroquine) at 76% for prophyllatic and curative 80 and 46 percentage for the bi-herbal and 52 percentage for chloroquine. Significant reduction in acetic acid induced pain p< 0.05 was obtained with an increase in percentage inhibition (60% for bi-herbal) and 76.5% for reference drug when compared with the control group. Also, the bi-herbal extracts exhibited a significant reduction in edema caused by formalin induced inflammation enhanced reduced the paw volume. The extract is safe given that the lethal dose was over 5000 mg/kg with paw volume of 3.57 mm of the bi-herbal when compared with acetylsalicyclic acid (3.50 mm) compared to the control group that showed inflammation at 5.27 mm. Also, the LD50 showed no lethality after 14 days of exposure to bi-herbal extract. This study showed that methanolic bi-herbal extracts displayed an efficient anti-malaria, nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. This validates the ethnomedicinal uses of the two plants as an anti-malarial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent.