keywords: Phytochemicals, antifungal Hyptis spicigera, methanol, flavonoid fraction, Aspergillus, Fusarium
The use of most synthetic fungicides have been restricted because of high acute toxicity, long degradation period, pathogen resistance, bad effect on human, plants, animals and the environment at large. Due to high usage of chemical fungicides on farm land near water bodies, there is an increase release of toxin in water bodies which will invariable entered into the food chain. The aim of the research was to determine the phytochemical and antifungal activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Hyptis spicigera on Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The phytochemical screening was done using standard methods. The antifungal activities were carried out to determine the zones of inhibitions, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentrations using standard methods of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes. The qualitative phytochemical constituents reveal the presence of anthraquinones, unsaturated sterols and triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed high concentration of saponin to be 490 mg/g, phenolic was 280 mg/g, flavonoids was 220 mg/g, alkaloids was 120 mg/g and tannins had the least concentration of 50 mg/g. The sensitivity of the extract on the test organism revealed highest diameter of inhibition on Aspergillus parasiticus with mean diameter of inhibition zone of 21.33±0.33 mm and the least inhibition zone of the extract was observed on Aspergillus niger with mean diameter of inhibition zone of 16.00±0.58 mm. The MIC of the fungi sensitive to the extract ranges between 3.13 to 12.5 mg/ml of the extract and their MFC ranges between 6.25 to 25 mg/ml of the extract. The result of the analyses of the diameter of inhibition revealed that there was a significant difference between the extract and the control fungicides (Mancozeb). The result obtained from this research revealed that the leaves extract could be used as bio-fungicidal product for the control of fungal diseases of some species of Aspergillus and Fusarium.