keywords: Radioactive wastes, radioactivity, spent nuclear fuel, disposal, regulatory bodies
This paper is a review on radioactive waste materials and disposal approach. Radioactive wastes are produced, year in year out from nuclear plants, industries, medical and military facilities. These wastes have been classified based on their half-lives, activity and/or origin by nuclear regulatory bodies. Some have over the years been stored in a dry or wet medium prior to when an appropriate means of disposal will be made available, in such a way that both man and environment are not affected negatively. However, ways to which they can be disposed have emerged and assigned to different types of radioactive wastes. These wastes emanate from various activities, sources, means and/or places. Radioactive wastes that pose highly dangerous to man and environment if not properly curtailed have been designated to be disposed in Repositories built several kilometers into the subsurface. These facilities undergo several analytical stages and processes before it is approved for construction, as certain frameworks for radioactive waste managements need to be assessed critically. Countries without these disposal means have commenced construction while some have solicited to aid countries that cannot construct such facilities in disposing their high level radioactive wastes or spent nuclear fuels.