keywords: Balanites aegyptiaca, crude saponin extract, male goatskin, leather processing
To create a way for green chemistry and sustainable development using bio-based surfactant as the potential for treatment of leather, which lead to saponin extraction from fruit of Balanites aegyptiaca plant. The total percentage of crude saponin extract obtained was 84.9%. The most important properties are the foam production and stability of extract and OMO at 5 min; it drops from 4.5 to 4.3 cm and 5.5 to 5.2 cm, respectively at the concentration of 0.1 g/ml of the surfactant solutions. The emulsion formation/capacity of the extract was good, drops from 98.3 to 55.0% and 92.5 to 35.2%, which is correspondingly higher than that of OMO drops from 98.0 to 40.0% and 92.0 to 34.3% for 2 and 5 g, respectively. The experiment shows that extract has higher and better capacity when compared to OMO (98.0 to 40%) within the hours of evaluation from 1 to 48 h, respectively. FTIR and GC -MS analysis shows promising results. The crude extracts at different concentration and temperature gave a better result to synthetic surfactant (OMO) both on the tensile strength and elongation at break.