keywords: Benzo[a]pyrene, cowhide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH4, roasting
Cowhides were collected from processors before and after exposure to smoke generated from burning wood. Dried cowhide samples (roasted and hot water processed) were extracted using 3:1 ratio of dichloromethane: hexane in a sonicator and the extract cleaned up in an alumina packed column with the same solvent mixtures then analyzed with gas chromatograph fitted with flame ionization detector. The study revealed that the total PAH concentrations in the non roasted cowhide was 2.1602 µgkg-1while total concentrations in the roasted samples was 2.7370 µgkg-1. The % PAH contamination levels from smoke in the smoked cowhide are in the range of 0-94. The study further revealed that the PAH4 (Benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene) had no contaminations ofbenz[a]anthracene and chrysene contributed from smoke.However, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene concentrations (µg/kg) from smoke relative to other environmental sources were lower; 0.0005, 0.0052 and 0.0087, 0.6222, respectively. The mean difference of the 16 USEPA listed PAHs in the roasted and non roasted samples were not significant statistically (p>0.05) except fluoranthene (p<0.05). This shows that smoke contributed fluoranthene significantly to the roasted cowhide. Generally, benzo[a]pyrene and sum of PAH4 concentrations were below the Food Standards Agency limits of 2 µgkg-1 and 12 µgkg-1, respectively.
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