keywords: Anthropogenic, Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, Automechanic workshop, Carcinogenic, Soil, Benue State
The analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different depths of soils in the vicinity of auto-mechanic workshops sites in three major towns (Makurdi, Gboko and Otukpo) within Benue State, Nigeria was carried out using GC-MS. The results shows that the total concentration PAHs at sample sites in Makurdi ranges from 532.8 -1122.8 μg/kg, sites in Gboko ranges from 325 - 849.5 μg/kg and sites in Otukpo ranges from 370.9 - 702.2 μg/kg. The order of PAHs contamination in the auto-mechanic workshop sites was Makurdi > Gboko > Otukpo and this signify their patronage of workshop in those town. The overall pattern of soil contamination by PAHs investigated are as follows: Acenaphthylene > Naphthalene > Acenaphthene > Phenanthrene > Anthracene > Pyrene > Fluoranthene > Indeno(1,2,3-c-d)pyrene > Benzo(a)anthrcene > Perylene > Chrysene > Benzo(ghi)perylene > Fluorene > Benzo(k)fluoranthene > Benzo(b)fluoranthene > Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. This shows that some of the sample sites are contaminated while others are not contaminated.
Abbey FW, Haus NW, Sukkariyah BF, Haering KC & Lee WD 2011. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soils and sediments: A literature review. Virginia Tech. http://landrehab.org/. Alexander M & Hatzinger PB 1995. Effect of aging of chemicals in soils on their biodegradability, and extractability. Environ. Sci. Techno.,23: 95- 101. Alexander M & Kelsey JM 1997. Declining bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds. Environ. Toxical. Chem., 582-585. Andersson BE, Lundstedt S, Tornberg K, Schnürer Y, Öberg LG & Mattiasson B 2003. Incomplete degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil inoculated with wood-rotting fungi and their effect on the indigenous soil bacteria. Envtal. Toxico. &Chem., 22(6): 1238-1243. Bjorseth A, Lunde G & Lindskog A 1979. Long-range transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Atmos. Environ., 13 45–53. Bojes HK & Pope PG 2007. Characterization of EPA’s 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Pahs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas. Reg. Toxicol. & Pharmacol., 47: 288-295. Gao YZ & Zhu LZ 2004. Plant uptake, accumulation and translocation of phenanthrene and pyrene in soils, Chemosphere, 55: 1169–1178. Harvey RG 1997 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Wiley-VCH. New York. Joa K, Panova E, Irha N, Teinemaa E, Lintelmann J & Kirso U 2009. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Pahs) in oil shale processing waste.: Current Practice & New Trends Oil Shale, 26 (1): 59–72. Johnston WR & Harrison RM 1984. Deposition of metallic and organic pollutants alongside the m6 motorway. Sci.Total Environ., 33: 119-127. Jones KC, Strafford JA, Waterhouse KS, Furlong ET, Giger W, Hite R, Schaffner C & Johnson AE 1989. Increase in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content of an agricultural soil over the last century. Environ.Sci. Technol., 23: 95-101. Kelsey JW & Alexander M 1997. Decline bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds in environment. Toxicol. Chem., 16: 582 – 585. Kelsey JW, Kottler BD & Alexander M 1997. Selective chemical extractants to predict bioavailability of soil-aged organic chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol., 31: 214–217. Lundstedt S 2003. Analysis of PAHs and their transformation products in contaminated soil and remedial processes. PhD Dissertation, Umeå University, Department of Chemistry. Obini U, Okafor CO & Afiukwa JN 2013. Determination of levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with spent motor engine oil in Abakaliki auto-mechanic village.J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt., 17(2): 169 – 175. Ogungbuyi PI, Obasi RA & Abimbola AF 2013. Assessement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration in sediments and soils around Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. Int. J. Engr. & Tech., 3(6): 686 – 695. Ojeyemi MO, Taofik AA & Niyi BO 2013. Proximate analysis and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in some selected raw food stuffs in Aroje and Owode, Nigeria. Food Sci. & Qlty Mgt., 20: 19-28. Silva BO, Adetunde OT, Oluseyi TO, Olayinka KO & Alo BI 2011. Comparison of some extraction methods and clean up procedures for the 16 priority US EPA PAHs. J. Sci. Res. Dev., 13: 129 – 143. Thiele S & Brummer GW 2002. Bioformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil under oxygen deficient conditions. Soil Bio. & Biochem., 34: 733 – 735. Wcislo E 1998. Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Poland - A review. Polish J. Envtal. Studies, 7(5): 267-272. Wild SR & Jones KC 1995. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom environment: A preliminary source inventory and budget. Envtal. Pollution, 88: 91–108. Wilson SC & Jones KC 1993. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A rreview. Envion. 81: 229 – 1089.