keywords: Contamination, indoor, Makurdi, office dust, toxic metals
In this study, indoor settled dust samples were collected from twenty one offices within the seven College buildings of the University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. The dust samples were analysed for the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb). The results of the analyses show toxic metals concentrations in the order of Cd < Cr
Adegbamowo EO, Agbede OA, Sridhar MKC & Adegbamowo CA 2006. An evaluation of lead levels in residential paints sold in Nigerian markets. The Indoor Built Envt., 15: 551-554. Al-Rajhi MA & Seaward MRD 1996. Metal levels in indoor and outdoor dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Envtal. Int., 22: 315-324. ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials) 2002. Practice for collection of settled dust samples using wipe sampling methods for subsequent lead determination and platinum group metals in Thohoyandou, South Africa. Water S.A., 31: 581-586. ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials) 2004. Standard practice for hot plate digestion of dust wipe samples for the determination of lead. Retrieved from www.freestd.us/soft2/740753.htm on 5th December, 2014. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MOC & Egwurugwu JN 2007. Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int. J. Physical Sci., 2(5): 112-118. Fergusson JE & Kim ND 1991. Trace elements in street and house dusts: source and speciation. Sci. Total Envt., 100: 125 – 150. Gerstner BC & Huff JE 1997. Clinical toxicology of mercury. Toxico. & Envtal. Health, 2: 167 – 171. Kim KW, Myung J H, Ahu JS &Chon HJ 1998. Heavy metal contamination in dust and stream sediment in the Toejon area Korea. Geochem. Exploration,64: 409-414. Lazor P, Tomas J, Toth T, Toth J & Ceryova S 2012. Monitoring of air pollution and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by analysis of honey. Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 1: 522-533. Mafuyai GM, Eneji IS & Sha’Ato R 2014. Concentration of heavy metals in respirable dust in Jos metropolitan area, Nigeria.Open J. Air Pollution, 3: 10-19. McCluggage D 1991. Heavy metal poisoning, NCS Magazine, Published by the BirdHospital, CO, U.S.A. (www.cockatiels.org/articles/diseases/metals.html). Retrieved on 20th March, 2015. McDonald L, Rasmussen T, Pat E, Chénier M & Levesque C 2010. Wipe sampling methodologies to assess exposures to lead and cadmium in urban Canadian homes, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water & Energy, 15(6): 52-66. Mgbemena MN & Onwukeme VI 2012. Heavy metal in dust samples from Aba, Abia State, Nigeria, using car wind screen as inert passive collector. Applied Chem., 3(1): 53-56. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health) 1994. Manual of analytical methods, Fourth Edition, Method 9100: Lead in surface wipe samples. Rasmussen PE, Subramanian KS & Jessiman BJ 2001. A multi-element profile of housedust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada.Science Total Environment, 267: 125 – 140 Shi G, Chen S, Xu S, Zhang J, Wang C & Bi J 2008. Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China. Envtal. Potential, 156: 251 – 260. Shinggu DY, Ogugbuaja V, Toma O & Barminas JT 2010. Determination of heavy metals in street dust in Yola, Nigeria. Afri. J. Pure & Appl. Chem., 4: 17-20. Tong ST & Lam KC 2000. Home sweet home: A case study of indoor dust contamination in Hong Kong.The Science of the Total Envt., 256: 115-123. WHO (World Health Organization) 1999. European air quality guidelines in Geneva, Switzerland. Yap CK, Krishnan T & Chew W 2011. Heavy metals concentration in ceiling fan dust sampled at schools around Serdang area, Selangor. Sains Malaysiana, 40(6): 569-575.