keywords: Alfisol, maize grain yield, management practices, manure, soil nitrogen, urea
Field experiments were carried out in two locations to determine the effects of cow dung subjected to different management practices, time of application and Urea fertilizer levels on the nitrogen content of the soil and maize grain yield in an Alfisol in Samaru, Zaria Nigeria. The experiment consisted of collection of cow dung and subjecting it to three different management practices (surface heaped uncovered, surface heaped covered and pit covered). There were four different types of manure ageing in the field (March – 3 months, April – 2 months, May – 1 month and June – 0 month) and two levels of nitrogen (zero – N0 and 45 kg N ha -1 – N2). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, replicated three times. The results show that, manure management practices affected the total soil nitrogen significantly (P greather than 0.05) at harvest in location 2. The months of application had significant (P greater than 0.05) effects on both the nitrogen values in the soil and maize grain yield, though there was no consistency in the two locations. The application of nitrogen at 45 kg N ha -1 consistently gave higher values of soil nitrogen and maize grain yield in the field at both direct and residual effects.
Asadu CLA & Unagwu BO 2012. Effect of combine poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer on maize performance in an Ultisolof southeastern Nigeria. Nig. J. Soil Sci., 22(1): 79-87. Bremner JM 1982. Total nitrogen. In, C.A. Black (ed) Methods of Soil Analysis Part II. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Am. Soc. of Agron. Madison Wisconsin, pp. 1149-1178. Bremner JS & Mulvaney CS 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Page AL (ed). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 595-624. Chukwu LI, Ano AO & Asawalam DO 2012. Effects of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on soil properties and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) plants growth in an Ultisol. Proceedings of the 36th Annual conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria (SSSN) on 7th – 11th March, 2012, University of Nigeria Nsukka. Defoer T, Budelman A, Toulmin C & Carter SE 2000. Managing soil fertility in the tropics. In: Defoer T & Budelman A (eds). Building common knowledge. Participatory Learning and Action Research (Part 1). A research guide for participatory learning and action research. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute. Dewes T 1994. Nitrogen losses from manure heaps. Biol. Agric. & Horticul., 11: 309-317. FAO 1989. Sustainable Agricultural Production implication for International Agricultural Research. FAO Research and Technical Paper, No. 4 Rome Italy. Fulhage CD 2000. Reduce environmental problems with proper land application of animal manure. University of Missouri Extension. USA. Harris F & Yusuf MA 2001. Manure management by smallholder farmers in the Kano close-settled zone, Nigeria. Experimental Agriculture, 37: 319-332. IFPRI, (1995). A 2020 Vision for Food Agriculture and Environment in Sub-saharan Africa. Discussion paper 4. O. Badiane and C. Delgado. (Eds) International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington DC, USA. Ikeh AO, Ndaeyo NU, Akpan EA, Udoh EI & Akata OR 2013. Evaluation of complementary use of organic manure for sustainable water yam production in Uyo, southeastern Nigeria. Amer. J. Res. Comm., 1(2): 33-48. Iwuafor ENO, Aihou K, Jaryum JS, Vanlauwe B, Diels J, Saginga N, Lyasse O, Deckers J & Merckx R 2002. On-farm evaluation of contribution of sole and mixed applications of organic matter and Urea to Maize grain production in the Savanna. In: Vanlauwe B, Diels J, Saginga N & Merckx R (Eds). Integrated plant nutrient management in Sub-saharan Africa. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, pp. 185-197. Jabbar MA 1996. Energy and the Evolution of Farm systems- the potentials mixed farming in the moist Savanna of Sub-saharan Africa. Out Look on Agric., 25: 27-36. Juo ARS 1979. Selected methods for soil and plant analysis. IITA Manual Series. No. 1, Ibadan, Nigeria. Klute A 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis, No. 9. Part 1, second edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. Kowal JM 1972. Radiation and Potential crop protection in Samaru, Nigeria. Savanna, 1: 89-101. Kowal JM & Knabe DT 1972. An Agro-Climatological Atlas of Northern Nigeria with explanatory notes. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Press. Musa MM 1975. A method for conservation of Cattle manure. FAO Soil Bulletin, 38: 89-95. Nelson DW & Sommers LE 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Page AL, Miller RH & Keeney DR (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis No. 9, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological properties. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 539-579. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) 2009. Soil fertility and nutrient use: Manure management.