(A Peer Review Journal)
e–ISSN: 2408–5162; p–ISSN: 2048–5170


Pages: 239-243
K. Omoruyi, O. Okpeva and M. M. Abdullahi

keywords: Proximate composition, Parachanna obscura, Synodontis clarias


This study examined the effects of smoke drying and oven drying on the nutritional qualities of Synodontis clarias and Parachanna obscura. Twelve pieces each of both species of same size, weight and source were procured from Mac-Iver market, Warri in Delta State, Nigeria. The fresh samples were divided into two groups, dried using Magbon-Alade and Gas Oven to a constant weight. The proximate and sensory quality of the samples were determined. The proximate composition of the fresh samples results were 66.33 and 64.67 (Moisture), 4.92 and 1.48 (Ash), 19.13 and 25.07 (Protein), 2.73 and 7.90 (Fat), 2.10 and 3.78 (Crude fibre) and 0.51 and 2.57% (Carbohydrate) for Synodontis clarias and Parachanna obsura respectively while smoke-dried Synodontis clarias and oven dried Synodontis clarias results were 6.74% and 4.97% (Moisture), 10.77% and 9.41% (Ash), 60.50% and 65.65% (Protein), 15.90% and 13.34% (Fat), 2.99% and 2.89% (Crude fibre) and 3.12% and 3.74% (Carbohydrate), respectively. The proximate composition of oven dried Parachanna obscura and smoke dried Parachanna obscura results were 5.96% and 6.39% (Moisture), 7.97% and 11.22% (Ash), 61.33% and 55.10% (Protein), 16.10% and 21.19% (Fat), 4.06% and 2.54% (Crude fibre) 4.92% and 4.17% (Carbohydrate). The organoleptic test for smoke-dried and oven-dried samples of both species assessed showed preferences for oven-dried samples in comparison with smoke-dried ones in terms of taste, colour, aroma, appearance. However, the texture of smoke dried Synodontis clarias was more preferred to the one oven dried. This study therefore recommends oven drying for processors because it has a positive influence on nutrition and acceptability of the dried fish.


Abolagba OJ, Omoruyi K & Ajiwoni KM 2015. Effects of smoking on the nutritional qualities of wild Synodontis clarias and Cultured Clarias gariepinus in Delta and Edo State. Nig. J. Agric., Food & Envt., 11(2): 46-52. Adewumi AA, Ogunlade I, Funmilayo CF 2015. Effect of processing on the nutritive value of Clarias gariepinus from Isinla fish pond, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. Amer. J. Biosci., 3(6): 262-266. Akande GR, Ajayi AA, Ogunweno C & Ash MT 2005. Comparative proximate composition, physical and sensory evaluation of fish smoked with sawdust and firewood using improved Chorkor oven. FAO Fisheries Report No. 712. Rome, p. 170. Akinneye JO, Amoo IA & Bakare OO 2010. Effect of drying methods on the chemical composition of three species of fish (Bonga spp., Sardinella spp. and Heterotis niloticus). Afri. J. Biotechn., 9(28): 4369-4373 Akinola OA, Akinyemi AA, & Bolaji BO 2006. Evaluation of traditional and solar drying systems towards enhancing fish storage and preservation in Nigeria (Abeokuta Local Government as a case study). J. Fish. Int., 1(2-4): 44-49. Akintola J & Lawal O 2011. Biochemical factors involved in the resistance of some tropical fish samples to insect attack. Turk. J. Biol., 35: 89-93. Ama-Abasi D & Ogar A 2012. Proximate analysis of snake head fish, Parachanna obscura (Gunther 1861) of the Cross River, Nigeria. J. Fisheries & Aquatic Sci. 1-4. Andres S, Ribeyre F, Toureneq JN & Boudou A 2000. Interspecific comparison of cadmium and zinc contamination in the organs of four fish species along a polymetallic pollution gradient (Lot River, France). Sci.Total Envt., 284: 11-25. Ashraf MA, Zafar AR, Shahib M & Maureen AQ 2011. Nutritional value of wild and cultivated Silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and Grass carp (Ctenoppharyngodon idella). Int. J. Agric. & Bio., 13: 210-214. Canli M & Atli G 2003. The relationship between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) levels and size of six Mediterranean fish species. Envtal Pollution, 121: 129-136. Chukwu O & Shaba IM 2009. Effects of drying methods on proximate composition of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). World J. Agric. Sci., 5(1): 114-116. Clucas IJ 1990. Fish Handling Preservation and Processing in the Tropics; Tropical. Daramola JA, Fasakin EA & Adeparusi EO. 2007. Changes in physicochemical and sensory characteristics of smoke-dried fish species stored at ambient temperature. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev., 7(6): 1684-5358. Das S & Sahu BK 2001. Biochemical composition and calorific content of fishes and shellfishes from Rushikulya estuary, south Orissa coast of India. Indian J.Fisheries, 48: 297-302. Effiong BN & Mohammed I 2008. Effect of seasonal variation on the nutrient composition in selected fish species in Lake Kainji Nigeria. Nature & Sci., 6(2): 1-5. Eyabi-Eyabi GD 1996. Storage quality of three pelagic species (Ethmalosa fimbriata, Sardinella madrensis and Ilisha africa) in Ice. Paper presented at FAO expert consultation on fish Technology in Africa, pp. 88-98. June 1996. Kisumu, Kenya. Fapohunda OO & Ogunkoya M 2006. Effect Of smoke-drying on the proximate composition of Tilapia zillii, Parachanna obscura and Clarias gariepinus obtained from Akure, Ondo-State, Nigeria. Animal Res. Int., 3(2): 478-480. Foss Analytical 2003. The determination of nitrogen according to Kjeldahl using digestion blockade steam distillation. Foss Analytical AB. Hoganas, Sweden. AN 300. Getu A, Misganaw K & Bazezew M 2015. Post-harvesting and major related problems of fish production. Fish Aquac. J., 6: 154. Gokoglu N, Yerlikaya P & Cengiz E 2004. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and mineral contents of rainbow–trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chem., 84: 19-22. Kabaherda MK Omony P & Hiisken SM 2009 C. Post-harvest handling of low value fish products and threats to nutritional quality and life: A review of practices in the Lake Victoria region Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in Sustainable Solutions. World Fish Center Project Report 1975, 2009, 15. Karim OR, Akanji AM &Olopade 2007. Effect of Dry Cooking Methods on the Nutritional value of Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbrata) and Sardine (Sardinella auratus) fishes. Int. J. food Agricu. Res., 2: 18–23. Kefas M, Michael KG, Abubakar KA, Edward A & Wahide JA 2014. Proximate and mineral contents of flesh and body parts of Oreochromis niloticus and Synodontis clarias in Mubi, Nigeria. G.J.B.A.H.S., 3(3):116-121. Obande RA, Omeji S & Ityumbe M 2012. Organoleptic assessment and nutritive values of Clarias gariepinus smoked using coal and firewood. Pak. J. Nutr., 11(9): 860-862. Ogbonnaya C & Ibrahim MS 2009. Effects of drying methods on proximate compositions of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). World J. Agric. Sci., 5(1): 114-116. Ogbonnaya C 2009. Influences of drying methods on nutritional properties of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).World J. Agric. Sci., 5(2): 256-258. Omotosho OE, Oboh G & Iweala EEJ 2011. Comparative effects of local coagulants on the nutritive value, invitro multi enzyme protein digestibility and sensory properties of Waracheese. Int. J. Dairy Sci., 6: 58-65. Osibiona AO, Kusemeju K & Akande GR 2009. Proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Acta SACEA, 3: 85-89. Oyero JO, Sadiku SOE & Eyo AA 2012. The effect of various smoking methods on the quality of differently salted Oreochromis niloticus. I.J.A.B.R., 2(4): 717-723 Rozainee TM & Ng PS 2010. Microwave assisted hot-air convection dehydration of fish slice: drying characteristics, energy aspects and colour. World Engineering Congress 2010, August 2-5, 2010. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysian conference on Advanced Processes and Materials. Safari E, Fogarty NM, Ferrier GR, Hopkins LD & Gilmour A 2001. Diverse lamb genotypes.Eating quality and the relationship between its objective measurement and sensory assessment. Meat Science, 57(2): 157 – 159. Saliu JK 2008. Effect of Smoking and Frozen Storage On The Nutrient Composition Of Some African Fish. Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., 2(1): 16-20. Shearer KD 1994. Factors affecting the proximate composition of cultured fishes with emphasis on salmonids. Aquaculture, 119: 63-88. Tao W & Linchun M 2008. Influences of Hot air drying and microwave drying on nutritional and odorous properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets. Food Chem., 110(3): 647-653. USDA 2010. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Laboratory. Waterman JJ 2000. Composition and Quality of Fish, Edinburgh, Torry Research Station. Wu T & Mao C 2008. Influences of hot-air drying and microwave drying on nutritional and odorous properties of grass carp (Ctenopharynggoden idellus) fillets. Food Chem., 110: 647-653. Yakubu MM & Ngueku BB 2015. Quality assessment of smoked-dried fish from five different markets in Lafia, Nigeria. Int. J. Fisheries & Aquatic Studies, 2(4): 135-139. Yola IA & Timothy O 2012. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African mudfish Clarias gariepinus smoked with two energy sources. J. Pure & Appl. Sci., 5(2): 115 – 118.