keywords: Escherichia coli, Honey, MBC, MIC, phytochemical constituents, Staphylococcus aureus
In Africa, microbial resistance to synthetic antimicrobial drugs has created growing interest and dependence on the use of natural products for medicinal purposes. Honey samples obtained from Oyo, Ogun, Edo, Lagos and Ondo States in south western Nigeria were investigated for phytochemical constituents and antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 700699 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229. Raw honey samples, water extracts of honey (WE) and ethanol extracts of honey (EE) showed antibacterial activity against the tested organisms with zones of inhibition ranging from 12 – 32 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined with concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/ml of WE and EE. These were then compared with 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of raw honey samples. MIC of WE on S. aureus were 20, 10, 20, 25 and 10 mg/ml while those of EE were 25, 10, 15, 20 and 10 mg/ml. For E.coli, MIC of WE were less than 5, 5, 10, 25, 15 mg/ml while those of EE were 5, 5, 10, 20, 20 mg/ml for Oyo, Lagos, Ogun, Edo and Ondo samples, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for the raw honey was 80% for S. aureus in Lagos, Ogun and Edo while it was 100% for Oyo and greater than100 for Ondo state. For E.coli, MBC was 100% for samples from Lagos, Edo and >100 for Oyo and Ogun states. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. Overall, antibacterial activity increased in the order: Lagos - Ogun - Edo - Oyo - Ondo with the extracts comparing favorably with conventional amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
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