keywords: Water; Fish; Human Urine; Chronic kidney disease; Heavy Metal
Recently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered to be a major health challenge to people living in developing countries especially to inhabitant of Gashua Town, Yobe State, Nigeria. In this region, several people are suffering from this multifaceted disease. Thus, this study evaluates the concentration of some heavy metals such as Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb) in river water samples, fish species and human urine (from hospital CKD and non-CKD patients to serve as control). Heavy Metals Concentrations were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy during dry and wet seasons. The results show that the mean concentration for river water measured varied in the two seasons. While As was not detected in both seasons, high concentrations of Cd (0.012 ± 0.008) µg g -1 and Pb (0.070 ± 0.009) µg g -1 compared to NAFDAC permissible limits were detected in the water samples during dry season at all sites. Similarly, high concentration of Cd (0.076 ± 0.034) µg g -1 , Cr (0.055 ± 0.005) µg g -1 , and Pb (0.092 ± 0.02) µg g -1 were reported for some sites during the wet season. The highest bioaccumulations factor of metals (Cr) was observed in the livers of Bagrus Dogmac fish (54.23), catfish (51.65), and Tilapia fish (49.33) respectively, whereas the lowest factors for Cu (3.064) and Pb (5.176) were obtained in the gill of Bagrus Dogmac fish. A strong positive correlation was observed for the specific fish organ and the water sample. Heavy metals concentration in the urine samples for the patients already diagnosed with kidney related diseases shows the presence of As (0.032 ± 0.011 µg mL −1 ) and Cu (0.224 ± 0.037 µg mL −1 ) which were higher compared with other metals analysed in male urine samples. A similar trend was observed for the female urine samples, where higher concentrations of Cu (0.202 ± 0.042 µg mL −1 ) and Cr (0.017 ± 0.007 µg mL −1 ) were recorded. However, there was insignificant trace of heavy metal concentration in urine samples obtained from healthy persons. It is noteworthy that, the concentrations of metals detected in the samples were neither NAFDAC nor WHO/FAO compliant.