keywords: Scoparia dulcis , Macroscopic, Microscopic, Physico-chemical, Elemental analysis
Scoparia dulcis is a perennial herb widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a common herb in traditional medical practices in Nigeria. The leaf is known to be used for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, stomach discomforts and as an antisickling agent. Pharmacognostic study of the leaf was carried out to determine the macroscopical and microscopical features, chemo-microscopical analysis , physicochemical parameters, as well as elemental content .The Leaf of Scoparia dulcis was observed macroscopically to be green in colour , odourless, 1.85 cm long and 0.32 cm wide while Microscopically, the powdered leaf and sections of the leaf revealed the presence of epidermal cells which were polygonal in shape and the anticlinal walls were wavy. Anomocytic stomata were observed to be present on both the upper and lower epidermis of the leaf. Calcium oxalate crystals were seen to be present and was of the prism type, Glandular trichome with multiseriate heads were also observed on the upper epidermis of the leaf only. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb,Mg and Ca. Chemo-microscopic characters present include lignin, starch, tannins, suberin, cellulose and calcium oxalate crystal. The Physicochemical parameters (%w/w) determined include moisture content (5.01), total ash content (7.5), acid insoluble ash content (0.83), water soluble ash content (2.83), ethanol extractives (33.0) and water soluble extractives (27.0). The results obtained from this research will provide information that may be useful for proper identification and preparation of an official monograph of the plant.