keywords: Artificial Pancreas; Closed-Loop Control; Dual-Hormone; Power Harvesting; and Fuzzy Logic Controller
In Type-1 Diabetes (T1-D), proper health monitoring can lead to better disease mitigation; thus, reducing the number of face-to-face visits by patients. This can be achieved through insulin replacement therapy using either multiple daily injections or continuous insulin infusion through an artificial pancreas (AP). AP is more accurate and effective than injections, assisting patients in better managing their glucose levels. Conventional AP mimics the operation of the human pancreas by delivering small doses of short-acting insulin continuously, or bolus insulin in response to meals or certain activities. The vital requirement for smart AP is the presence of systems that detect glucose levels in real time using minimally invasive and low-power devices. This can be achieved using powerefficient on-site monitoring devices. Therefore, this review presents the state-of-the-art in the development of intelligent and power-efficient glucagon and insulin delivery systems for type 1 diabetes (T1-D) management as well as the future perspectives on the development of smart AP systems. Emphasis is placed on its practicability for use in sub-Saharan Africa.