keywords: Availability, diesel, emissions, microgrid, photovoltaic, wind
This paper discusses the design and comparative assessments of photovoltaic (PV)/wind/diesel-based microgrid (µgrid) using Tarauni in Kano State as a test case. The µgrid design is based on users’ demand of 201.2 kWh/day (i.e., 73,438 kWh/yr) and the location’s solar and wind data. The technical performance examines the component sizes, annual electricity, unmet load (uL), and the availability (aV), while the environmental aspect considers the carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (UH), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions produced. The Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) Pro µgrid tool is used to simulate the systems. The size of the PV obtained is 60 kW, which produces 82,523 kWh/yr of electricity and it achieves uL and aV of 7.18 and 92.82 %, respectively. Two wind generators – WT1 and WT2, 10 kW each, are then added to the 60 kW PV. The PV and these wind systems produce 82,523, 11,739 and 11,739 kWh/yr of electricity, respectively, thus realizing uL and aV of 6.99 and 93.01 %. A 16 kW diesel generator is then added to the PV/wind µgrid and this diesel generator produces 22,164 kWh/yr of electricity, making the PV/wind/diesel µgrid to realize uL and aV of 0 and 100 %. The CO2, CO, UH, PM, SO2 and NOx emissions by the PV/wind/diesel µgrid are 18,686, 118, 5.14, 0.714, 45.8 and 111 kg/yr compared to the values of 65,312, 412, 18, 2.5, 160 and 385 kg/yr when a diesel µgrid is utilized. The paper can help to address the energy shortage in unserved/underserved locations.