keywords: Industrial effluent, Heavy metal, surface water, contamination, wastewater discharge
Heavy metal is a major environmental threat, hence the need for regular monitoring in order to identify contaminant sources, types and levels of concentrations for the purpose of policy formulation to promote sustainable wastewater management and treatment infrastructure. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of industrial effluent on selected heavy metal levels in River Rido, southern Kaduna, and Kaduna State, Nigeria. Eight heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg) and Iron (Fe) were analysis. The study showed that Pb, Fe, Cd and Mn at the discharge points and points downstream of Rido River were higher than permissible limits for drinking water, while As and Hg were within margin, although higher than levels at the control point. Results of student t test revealed significant difference in the levels of heavy metal concentration between effluent discharge points and control point as well as between control point and points downstream of River Rido, an indication of increased concentrations at effluent discharge point and areas downstream of the study area. More so, significant differences in the levels of heavy metals between discharge points, points downstream of the study area and permissible limits for drinking water as given by WHO (2011) was also observed at 0.05 level of confidence. There is need to formulate and adopt enforceable policies on wastewater management and treatment facility in the study area in order to minimize environmental pollution associated with wastewater from Northern noodles and the Petroleum Corporation (NNPC).