keywords: Cadmium, Estimated daily intake, Fish, Hazard quotient, Lead
Fish is consumed in large quantities around the world because of its nutritional, medical, and economic benefits. Unfortunately, heavy metals from anthropogenic activities have contaminated many bodies of water, necessitating safety evaluation of fish sold in various markets across the world. In the current study, the safety of Clarias gariepinus (mud fish) sold in Agboyi, Oworonsoki, and Bariga Markets in Lagos, Nigeria was evaluated. Samples of the fish were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations, namely copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni). After that, the human estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) of the heavy metals were evaluated. The results showed that the evaluated heavy metals were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) across the markets. The EDI of heavy metals across markets, as well as the HQ (< 1), were both within the recommended daily limits. These results suggest that the fish sold across the markets are safe for consumption. Fishermen, fish sellers, and consumers should eliminate all sources of heavy metal contamination to maintain and even improve the current status of the fish sold in the markets.